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Assessment Of Thompson And Huston Reading

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Assessment of Thompson and Huston reading

In relation to the concept of evaluation, Thompson and Hunston make an introduction to evaluation and pointing out that this refers to the expression of attitudes, opinions or feelings of a speaker towards an entity or proposition. This reading constitutes a good first approach to what is later developed in detail in the Martin and White Framework Appraisal Valuation System. Grants greater understanding of the characteristics of the evaluation, since it is mentioned that it is comparative, subjective and has a valorical load. The idea of understanding grammar from an evaluation perspective makes sense to create a more holistic evaluation perspective. Subsequently, Martin and White describe that one of the purposes of the valuation system is to expand the traditional vision of addressing evaluation, commitment, knowledge of the speaker or textual producer. Therefore, the valuation system expands the concept of evaluation proposed by Thompson and Huston. In the section of the concept of ideology two functions of the evaluation were mentioned: express opinions of the speaker and build and maintain relationships between speaker and interlocutor. However, there is a third function that is particularly notable. This function is to organize discourse. Together with structuring the speech, the beginning of the text, the organization of the argument and the end of the interaction is exposed. We value when organizing the speeches, what Martin and Rose manifest is the periodicity.

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Oteíza adds that the three functions occur at the same time in the speech.

As the relationship between the evaluation text of Thompson and Huston and the valuation system has already been exemplified, it remains to show the connection between the valuation system and the theory of functional systemic linguistics. The valuation system constitutes a system of theoretical bases and methodological tools to examine registered and evoked realizations of the intersubjectivity of discourse. Volóshinov already commented that the sign reflects and refracts reality, so the valuation system can use in a variety of contexts thanks to the potential of language meaning. According to Oteíza, "Appraisal you have to do with the negotiation of meanings among real or potential interlocutors" . Therefore it implies a dialogic perspective for analysis. The basic unit of semantics is the text, and the valuation system operates in the semantic discursive stratum. Functional systemic linguistics described by Matthiessen implies that language as a semantic system has a cultural significance that is what it allows to characterize it. Discourse or text is prioritized not only as evidence of the system but as a constitutive element of culture. When observing the figures offered in the Oteíza text, it is possible to establish a relationship with the figures represented in Matthiessen’s text, this is because the valuation system is born from functional systemic linguistics. The valuation system organizes the evaluation in three main semantic domains: attitude, gradation and commitment. The first is related to the sources of attitude of emotional responses and value systems determined by culture. Gradation refers to the way in which the speaker intensifies or decreases the strength of his statements. The commitment is related to the interpersonal negotiation of the sources of attitude and the linguistic resources that can be used to position the voice of the textual producer. It is important to understand that this system is an evolving system that seeks to describe and explain the semantic option systems that language has to adopt position, evaluate, negotiate, among others. In the macro field to this system, functional linguistics assumes that the structure of language is conditioned by the functions that language fulfills. In this context, speakers update meanings when they opt for any of them and thus produce texts, which are communicative units in situation contexts. Opting for an option and how the voice is positioned is the matter of the valuation system.

In the previous paragraph, reference is made to functional systemic linguistics and its relationship with the valuation system. This section will comment on the main most relevant contributions and notions of functional systemic theory. First of all, language is organized in metafunctions that are intrinsic to language and correspond to ideational, textual and interpersonal metafunctions. The texts, being communication units are enrolled in a context. This context does not disregard the text and the text does not disregard the context. This means that there is a bidirectional relationship between the social and language. A relationship of mutual dependence and determination between text and context in which grammatical elements (transitivity, mode and theme) in the clause and discursive (registration, conventions of use, ideology) are involved, ideology) is postulated, the ideology). A language theory emerges from the descriptions of particular languages, and therefore the functional systemic theory is a typological study because it is a descriptive study that seeks to generalize or create generalization patterns. In this sense, language descriptions are oriented to context, based on discourse and focused on meaning. Matthiessen in the text architecture of language refers to the organization of language regarding the functional systemic theory. The concept of stratum or strata is of the utmost importance to be able to organize language in context in ordered series of strata or global dimensions. Each stratum is related to the next through a realization or realization process. Another key concept in functional systemic linguistics is instantiation. Through instantiation, the system is linked to its observable manifestation, the text. The organizing and detail organizing dimensions are linked both paradigmatic and syntagmatically. The paradigmatic axis presents the options of meaning available in a stratum, metaphunction or system. The syntagmatic axis is related to the realization of a particular option, it is the concretion in a particular grammar. From the descriptive point of view, it is possible.

In summary, a primary objective of the study of the language must be the recognition of how it creates meanings and how these meanings are exchanged. In this context, Volóshinov states that the word is the ideological phenomenon par excellence, and that in turn every sign is subject to criteria of ideological evaluation, such as false-truth, good-it, among others. It can therefore be said that language creates meanings and the same that creates them allows them to exchange them. Here is that the context is decisive in the communicative situation. Thompson and Huston mention that when we evaluate we compare a relationship between values of meaning. These last authors are concerned about how we value text. When mentioning that the evaluation is comparative and has a valorical load, it accommodates itself to ask how culture builds feelings as positive or negative. Oteíza manages to summarize the main points of the framework valuation system or appraisal, work in which it expands in how the textual voice is positioned with respect to other voices and positions in the discourse. The assessment system turns out to be a rustic tool that could help to make visible what type of ideologies are naturalized by their speech. Finally, Matthiessen mentions that language is a potential for meaning and shows the development of functional systemic theory over the years. It is relevant to mention that the meaning is constituted in interaction because such meaning has a sociocultural affiliation. Therefore, being subject to a context, you have to be careful when using terminology of a traditional grammar to refer to other varieties of language. Based on functional systemic linguistics, this system could be used in teaching for example undergraduate. When using metalanguage, grammatical structures could be allowed to relate to the cultural field where the text is inserted. Perhaps in this way the connection between text and context could allow them to understand in depth and in turn reveal the nature of meaning negotiations in a specific community.  

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