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Drugs of Abuse and the Poly Drug User

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Drugs of Abuse and the Poly Drug User
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Abstract
It is important to analyze the concept of drug abuse by categorizing harmful drugs in different categories. Pharmacists have categorized drugs into seven different domains. This is according to their perceived effects on human body and mind. The seven categories include CNS stimulants, inhalants, central nervous system (CNS) depressants, hallucinogens, narcotic analgesics, and dissociative anesthetics. This essay tends to compare the two important categories of drugs that have been abused by the users. The two categories are CNS Stimulants and Narcotic Analgesics. The essay also compares the above-stated drug categories in relation to their Effects on the human body including symptomology. Additionally, the essay contrast CNS Stimulants and Narcotic Analgesics in relation to their identification and packaging as well as the methods of ingestion. The essay has also discussed the difference between CNS Stimulants and Narcotic Analgesics especially on their trafficking trends in the country. Finally, the essay has elaborated different issues in criminality as far as the two categories of drugs is concerned.
Keywords: Drug categories, CNS Stimulants, Narcotic Analgesics, trafficking trends, issues in criminality, Effects on the human body, identification, and packaging

Introduction
It is with no doubt that there are different categories of drugs. There exist seven major categories of drugs that for a long time have been abused by the users.

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According to physicians, it has been recognized that various types of drugs have different effects on the users. It is in this light that drugs have been classified or categorized by physicians in line with certain shared effects or the symptomatologies. According to the DRE website, such categorization are classified in accordance with the medically accepted facts. DRE tends to classify drugs into seven categories which are CNS stimulants, inhalants, central nervous system (CNS) depressants, hallucinogens, narcotic analgesics, and dissociative anesthetics. Notably, drugs emanating from the categories mentioned above can affect an individual’s central nervous system. They also impair an individual’s normal faculties especially the ability of an individual to control a motor vehicle. This essay will compare the two categories of drugs which include CNS Stimulants and Narcotic Analgesics according to various subheadings.
Effects on the human body including symptomology
There is need to analyze Effects on the human body including symptomology in comparing the drug abuse factor between CNS Stimulants and Narcotic Analgesics. Unlike Narcotic Analgesics, CNS Stimulants works to elevate or increase an individual’s body functioning abilities. Such drugs include cocaine, crack, methamphetamine, and amphetamine (Decp.org. 2018 N.p). CNS Stimulants portray adverse effects on the chemical composition of the user. This is very harmful to individual health, and it should be noted that when such drugs are taken in high doses, then they can as well result in an abrupt death. This can be detected by symptoms such as overheating body or overworking the body’s functional ability. Another perceived effect of CNS Stimulants is that it increases the users’ blood pressure as well as heart rate. Such drugs increase the glucose level hence open up the breathing passage.
Conversely, CNS Stimulants also has positive effects especially to those who suffer from deficit hyperactivity disorder. When taken in proper dosage it helps such patients to stay awake longer and increase alertness among them. It should be remembered that stimulants can also cause permanent damage to organs such as the heart. This happens when it is taken in excess hence results in dehydration which is the ideal symptom for its negative impacts. In contrast, Narcotic Analgesics drugs when taken as prescribed by the physicians do not have adverse effects on users rather than pain relief. However, when taken in high quantity, they may portray various effects such as a feeling of euphoria. Euphoria is an intense or extreme sense of excitement or happiness. Other effects of Narcotic Analgesics include relaxed feeling, low anxiety, and positive outlook. It also portrays adverse effects such as slowed movement, drowsiness, reduced pain, dry mouth as well as dehydration.
Identification and packaging
There are different methods of identification and packaging of various categories of drugs. CNS Stimulants comprised of generic products and this can help in their identification of having legitimate pharmaceutical preparation. Such drugs can be identified in the laboratory using the listing descriptions. The listing process is the preliminary point of analytic process on such drugs. There exist unique factors associated with packaging of the CNS Stimulants. CNS Stimulants drugs such as cocaine are usually imported into the country while clandestinely packaged. Such packages are transported through commercial carriers to distributors who then reclaim them and repackage them, especially when doing street distribution. In most instances, such drugs are shipped through human beings who swallow them to avoid the custom duties. It is usually hectic to identify Narcotic Analgesics drugs (Bennett et al. 2007 pg 513). For example, the presence of yellow substance usually shows the availability of such drugs like heroin. Such drugs can be in the form of liquid or solid. They can also be identified with the use and application of standard chemical technique as well as instrument method. Such drugs are packed in small sachets specifically for sniffing purposes. This has made it impossible to eradicate their use by the criminal departments and only sniffing dogs can trace their presence in the streets.
Methods of ingestion
CNS Stimulants drugs such as cocaine are said to be pills as well as capsules that can be swallowed. However, there are different types of these drug category hence different ingestion methods. For instance, some drugs are injected into the bloodstream by syringe while others are swallowed. For instance, cocaine is a CNS Stimulants drug that is smoked by inhaling its vapor. Either method of ingestion is harmful to an individual user. Another method of administering crack is by snorting which is ideal for users. This is because it has an immediate effect within 15 minutes and can last to approximately one hour after ingestion. Narcotic Analgesics drugs, on the other hand, have no different methods of ingestion. Drugs such as heroin, Darvon, methadone, codeine, opium, and Demerol are said to be smoked. Conversely, they can be injected with the help of a syringe into the blood system of the users. This portrays immediate effects in the bloodstream (Mim 2004, pg 21-25).
Another method of ingesting Narcotic Analgesics drug is by snorting or what is commonly known as sniffing. Snorting method is applied to those highly pure substances like heroin and Darvon. Like with the case of CNS Stimulants drugs, either methods of ingesting Narcotic Analgesics drugs are all harmful to the users. For instance, injection method can spearhead the spread of HIV viruses. Smoking, on the other hand, is likely possible to affects human organs such as lungs and breathing systems. Ideally, the two categories of drugs portray similar methods of ingestion.
Trafficking trends for the two drug categories
It is no doubt that drugs from the two categories are highly being abused in the country. This is according to the recent evidence from drug control department that for a long time has faced challenges in stopping drug trafficking into the country. Drug trafficking is the biggest challenge that is facing the criminal authorities. Such problems can be controlled by preventing illicit cultivation, manufacturing as well as the production of such drugs. According to the United Nations International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), approximately 67% of the CNS Stimulants drugs have been trafficked into the country and are resulting to almost 30% of the deaths that emanates as a result of drug abuse.
On the other hand, trafficking of Narcotic Analgesics culminated to approximately 45% in 1999, and this increased immensely by 20% in 2007. This data was constructed by analyzing individual deaths that occurred from using Narcotic Analgesics drugs, for instance, opioid analgesics (Dea.gov. 2018 N.p). It is therefore evidenced that the trafficking trends of Narcotic Analgesics drugs are in the increase just like the CNS Stimulants drugs. In comparing the trafficking trends between the two drug categories, one needs to identify whether their effects are increasing within the country or depreciating as evidenced in the graphs below.

Source: https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/mtgs/non_dea_meetings/asipp_jr_060912.pdf
Issues in criminality
It is true that drugs are highly associated with criminal behaviors. According to the recent records from criminal departments, it is said that traces of hard drugs were found among the offenders. Users of Narcotic Analgesics drugs are said to have a low connection with criminal activities. However, because of addiction of such drugs many users tend to carry out criminal activity to obtain drugs or to have money for acquiring such drugs. This is minimal as compared to other drugs that impair the cognitive ability of an individual.
It should be pointed out that Narcotic Analgesics drugs usually increase excitement among its users hence do not interfere with their cognitive levels. Unlike Narcotic Analgesics drugs, CNS Stimulants drugs like crack cocaine, methamphetamine portray serious danger on its users as far as criminal activities are concerned. It is evidenced that such drugs in impairs individuals mind hence one can engage easily in criminal activities. Such drugs interfere with the chemical composition of the users and in turn impair the cognitive ability a factor that makes it easy for one to practice crime (Mim 2004, pg 78). It should be noted that among the two categories of drugs, users of CNS Stimulants drugs have a high likelihood of getting involved in criminal activities.
Conclusion
In a nutshell, it has been evidenced that indeed different categories of drugs portray different symptoms and effects among their users. The categories can be compared using various concepts to find out which is more harmful than the other. For instance, it has been noted that the two categories of drugs CNS Stimulants drugs and the Narcotic Analgesics drugs have different effects on individual health and mind. They also possess different symptoms and portray varied levels at which the users can get engaged in criminal activities. Comparing these drug categories gives a lot of insight into their harmful nature and how best the criminal departments can identify them in the streets. Indeed, it is important to compare and contrast the seven categories of drugs to give in-depth knowledge on a specific drug.

References
Decp.org. (2018). The International Drug Evaluation & Classification Program. Retrieved 21 January 2018, from http://www.decp.org/drug-recognition-experts-dre/7-drug-categories/Bennett, W. W., Hess, K. M., & Orthmann, C. H. (2007). Criminal investigation. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Mim, J. Landry. (2004). Understanding Drugs Of Abuse: The processes of addiction, treatment, and recovery. S.l.: AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC PRES.
Dea.gov. (2018). Drugs of Abuse. Retrieved 21 January 2018, from https://www.dea.gov/pr/multimedia-library/publications/drug_of_abuse.pdf

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