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photosynthesis

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PhotosynthesisName:
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Photosynthesis
Introduction
Photosynthesis is the mechanism through which plants, some protistans, and some bacteria produce glucose from water and carbon dioxide using sunlight energy. The glucose can be transformed into pyruvates which produce Oxygen and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through respiration. The transformation of direct energy from sunlight into chemical energy is attributed to the role played by chlorophyll, the green pigment. Chlorophyll is an extensive significant compound in this mechanism. Several variations of chlorophyll exist among plants and other organisms that perform photosynthesis (Maurino & Weber, 2012).
In many plants, Chlorophyll is contained in the leaves not all plants have leaves. However, leaves may be seen as solar panels that collect solar energy (Buchanan, 2015). The input material for the process of photosynthesis is carbon dioxide and water. The CO2 enters the plant through the leaf through the stomata. In most plants, water enters the plant through the root where it is conveyed to the leaves by xylem vessels, which are specialized plant cells (Taiz et al., 2015). Photosynthesis undergoes two comprehensive phases that are the light-dependent stage and the popular light-independent level also noted as the Calvin cycle (RSC Organization Website, 2018)
Stages of photosynthesis
Light-Dependent stage
Light-dependent stage necessitates sunlight energy. In the light-stage, sunlight energy is taken in by the chlorophyll pigment and transformed into chemical energy, as carrier electron molecules nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and the currency energy molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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The light-stage occurs in the granum specifically in the membranes of the thylakoid or otherwise the stack of thylakoids, inside the chloroplast (Buchanan, 2015).
Light-Independent stage
In the Calvin cycle or the light-independent stage, the energy-rich electrons emitted in the light-dependent stage make available the power to synthesize carbohydrates from CO2 molecules. The light-independent stage is also popularly referred as the Calvin cycle since the process itself involves a recurring cycle.
Even though the light-independent stage does not require light energy, the process can also occur in the dark. However, the entire mechanism needs the products of the light-dependent stage to take place. Furthermore, the light-independent stage requires energy from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and the adenosine triphosphate to take place. After the energy is delivered to the Calvin cycle, the NADPH and the NADPH molecules are taken back to the light stage to get more energy (Najafpour et al., 2017).
The Importance of Photosynthesis
All organisms from simple microbes to human beings need the energy to survive. To obtain this energy, the majority of living things get this energy by consuming food. Some animals eat other animals while others eat plants. Looking at the food change the source of energy can be traced back to the sun or rather the process of photosynthesis (Najafpour et al., 2017). In this regard, we can say that the process of Photosynthesis is the cornerstone of life on the planet. Therefore, this is particularly the reason why plants are always first in the diagrammatic representation of all food chains. Without it, all life forms on earth would be in danger of perishing essential to all life on earth (Buchanan, 2015).
In conclusion, it is, therefore, our responsibility as intelligent beings to take care of our planet in order to make sure that the process of photosynthesis is occurring healthily in plants. This can be achieved by reducing global warming which has the consequence of causing substantial climate change (Trenberth et al., 2014).
References
Buchanan, B. B. (2015). Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. John Wiley & Sons.
Maurino, V. G., & Weber, A. P. (2012). Engineering photosynthesis in plants and synthetic microorganisms. Journal of experimental botany, 64(3), 743-751.
Najafpour, M. M., Hou, H. J., & Allakhverdiev, S. I. (2017). Photosynthesis: Natural Nanomachines Toward Energy and Food Production. In Photosynthesis: Structures, Mechanisms, and Applications (pp. 1-9). Springer International Publishing.
Taiz, L., Zeiger, E., Møller, I. M., & Murphy, A. (2015). Plant Physiology and Development. Sinauer Associates, Incorporated
Trenberth, K. E., Dai, A., Van Der Schrier, G., Jones, P. D., Barichivich, J., Briffa, K. R., & Sheffield, J. (2014). Global Warming and Changes in Drought. Nature Climate Change, 4(1), 17-22.
RSC Organization Website. (2018). Photosynthesis. Retrieved from, RSC Organization Website, on January 08, 2018.http://www.rsc.org/Education/Teachers/Resources/cfb/Photosynthesis.htm

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