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Research problem(s)

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Research problem(s).
The research problem was to ascertain the biological factors that underpin the sex differences in sensitivity to opioid antagonists. Many studies have examined how genetic discrepancies may result to sensitivity to opioid receptor antagonist. However, no study has examined and described the biological factors that engender such effects.
Research Question(s) or Hypothesis
The study had two research questions. The first one was to examine the effect of MC phase on acute cortisol, LH, prolactin, and subjective responses prone to naltrexone among women. The second question sought to find out the comparisons between womens’ and mens’ responses to naltrexone. The hypothesis of the study was that women possess a higher tone of an opioid during the luteal phase of MC as opposed to early follicular phase in women and men. This implies that the sensitivity to naltrexone dose would be acute, with more subjective and hormonal responses.
Significance of the Study
The study is important because it highlights significant implications for naltrexone use in women. For instance, the findings revealed that women in luteal phase are more sensitive to acute subjective and hormonal effects of naltrexone compared to men and women in early follicular.
Methods and procedure
The study used psychiatric interview for diagnosis, completion of a range of questionnaires, and general physical examination conducted by the study nurse. The questionnaires included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.

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Evaluation of the Methods and Procedures
The methods and procedures were important because they allowed the study nurse to get the required results. For instance, the questionnaires were significant because anxiety, abuse disorders, depression, and trauma history were highly likely to affect hormonal function. The procedures were important as they resulted in many individuals who were not suitable to undergo the medical procedures being excluded from the study.
Sample
The study utilized a randomized sample method with 46 womenparticipants, which comprised of 23 women in their early follicular and the other half in the luteal phase. The study also comprised of twenty-four male participants, a number that was informed by a randomized sampling method.
Reliability and Validity of the Instruments
The instruments used were both valid and reliable. The validity of the instruments used was achieved through using questionnaires and interviews questions that were representative of the desired outcomes of the severity of women’s response to naltrexone. Reliability was achieved through the consistency of the questionnaire in measuring factors such as the participants’ history of the health and substance abuse.
Type of Research
The study employed a qualitative approach because the researchers wanted to select the participants who would best represent the purpose of the study. This type of research was also effective since it helped to measure the phenomenon under study in the context of the hospital.
Data analysis
The researcher analyzed the subjective and hormonal measures for both luteal and early follicular women using ANOVA, Chi-square test, and t-tests.
Major finding(s)
The findings of the study revealed that in early follicular and luteal women, naltrexone heightened the levels of proclactin and cortisol from baseline. Another important finding was that the induced naltrexone increases in the hormones were higher in luteal women as opposed to early follicular. These findings are important for using naltrexone to treat addiction in women.
Improvement of research
The study can be improved by clarifying the effects associated with the administration of chronic naltrexone on hormone function.

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