The Evolution Of Genetic Modification
The evolution of genetic modification
First of all you have to ask ourselves What is genetic modification? It is the direct manipulation of the genes, that is, genes are introduced into the genome of a living being that lacks them and their study is the biotechnology/genetic engineering. This is a procedure that is to be implemented to improve the quality of life of people, with this I mean that we could live free of diseases and many other benefits that genetic modification brings, this wants to apply both in babies and in adults,But it has not been possible to move forward as we would like that this is considered immoral and not very ethical because with this it is possible that the result is not expected and ends in something deadly. One of the best known methods, CRISPR CAS9 is a molecular tool that serves to modify DNA in the genome, acts as scissoNew DNA to the system but history is first necessary before this mechanism.
Now this has already explained, let’s go to the 70s, exactly in 1973 when genetic engineering could only appreciate how such researchers Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer, who were the first to recombine parts of their DNA. But genetic engineering existed long before these researchers discovered it, thanks to the theory of evolution by natural selection presented by Darwin (1859) that generated controversies at the beginning but when things calm the biologists they began to be interested in this, morefor the mechanisms that the theory itself.
At the end of the 19th century, the methods that were used were totally effective, an example of this is Robert Bakewell, who was a famous 18th -century English breeder who crossed his animals with others unrelated to get the features he wants, this method was called"In-And-In".
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Before genetics was not considered a science until 1900, when Gregor Mendel who was a scientist and monk who established the fundamental laws of inheritance, postulms something really unforeseen for the time;Each individual who reproduces sexually transfers exactly half of his genes to his descendant. Thanks to this at the beginning of the 20th century he recognized him as the father of genetic science.
Around 1883 Francis Galton appeared, his interest in eugenics arose thanks to the theory "Origin of species" published by Darwin (1859). To begin with, what is eugenics? It is a procedure in which living beings are eliminated who have defective genes (such as malformations or serious diseases), thus avoiding suffering and is a saving of resources for society and aims to accelerate the improvement process. In 1904 Galton described eugenics as “the science that deals with all the influences that improve innate qualities or raw material, of a race;also those that can develop it until reaching maximum superiority (Zaul) ". The basic argument was that talent and geni.
Then, turning his eyes towards the time of World War II, more specific in Nazi Germany where all kinds of medical torture were practiced and that was when Hitler applied a method called T4 action that was used to have racial purity, the first victims weremutilated people and children with delay but that was not all. During the third Reich, a variant of politically extremist eugenics was used, which determined the destiny of state policy. Hitler’s eugenic ideal was to create a Nordic race and tried to exclude racially foreign or less valuable people due to their inheritance due to their inheritance. Measures were taken to control reproduction in order to strengthen the nation and that they did not have to be worried about a biological threat. German scientists supported the ideas of racial hygiene long before 1933, they realized the importance that the regime was giving to inheritance and biology itself. At least six million Jews were exterminated thanks to the eugenic policy between 1933 and 1945.
In 1952 Thomas King and Robert Briggs begin to experiment with frogs, more exactly with a type of frog called Rana Pipiens, it consisted of eliminating the nucleus of the haploid of the unad -fertilized ovulus and inserting a diploidCygoto Division Process. These scientists experienced with the transfer of blastula nuclei (it is one of the first stages of development of an embryo), so few became reborn. This process was called nuclear transplantation and King and Briggs are the first to use this procedure.
Later, in 1962 John Gurdon also began to clone frogs, what made different was that I hope that the core of the cells would develop more. I hope that cloned frogs had sexual maturity and then mate two sexually mature clones, I achieve that donor nuclei could redirect development. This type of experiment was accepted by the scientific community, however, there were doubts about whether the core of the host ovulo was really implanted. This doubt remained as such from 1958 to 2002, although Gurdon tried to demonstrate that the nucleus was inserted.
Marshall W. Nirenberg and Johann H. Matthaei were the first scientists to finally describe the complete genetic code. In 1961 they published a study where they used a cell free system where artificial mRNA was dealt with to synthesize proteins. The first RNM that was occupied was poly-u and that resulted in the amino acid felinanina. In later years, codons continued to be assigned until they had the code completely deciphered by 1965.
Once the code was deciphered, all the theories raised were discardDifferent and Gilbert, being rich in experimental evidence discovered an important event regarding the origin of life.
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