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Basic Education Factors That Contribute To The Reproduction Of Gender Inequality

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Basic education factors that contribute to the reproduction of gender inequality

Summary

  • Objective: Identify those factors in basic education that contribute to the reproduction of gender inequality.
  • Method: descriptive qualitative research: documentary design. Data collection technique: interview
  • Results: The interviewed people obviously have information about some factors that contribute to the reproduction of gender inequallad. The most visible factors in this phenomenon are those that have mostly standardized are in society, built under the family and educational aspect. The study was carried out in the city of Quito with the help of two psychologists: clinical and student, in charge of the vocational guidance department of their respective educational units.

Introduction

The investigation was carried out by the general concern to explore and explain factors that affect the action of reproducing the inequality between genders by the allocation of roles in the teaching process in basic education, relationship between colleagues, prejudices, knowledge and skill hierarchical. This phenomenon is considered as a structural and cultural determinant of the inequalities developed through decades, thus shared from generation to generation to generation. That is why it is considered important to know where it is born and what is its cultural nucleus and the basis of the construction of both genres, not only of the "oppressed sex".

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The purpose is to discover the scope of the allocation of roles.

The research seeks an approach to gender inequality from its own nucleus, cultural and social models that in basic education are processed and reproduced as “normal acts” and this in turn triggers in the fact of continuing to maintain an inequality structure. Despite carrying many studies on gender inequality, the subject is not in curricula.

Methodology

Structured the objective of the investigation, the methodology used is qualitative. The in -depth interview is useful as a research tool to achieve the real and detailed perspective on the criteria of the professionals investigated, which allows us whether or not there are behaviors that affect the process of resting roles in basic education.

Field work was carried out from October 20, 2019 to February 16 of this year. 2 interviews were conducted with teachers in charge of the Department of Vocational Orientation of the Cristo Rey Educational Unit in the city of Portoviejo and in the Tulcán Educational Unit in the city of Tulcán. The approach with psychologists was carried out in the city of Quito.

The interviews had a duration about 40 minutes. With the discourse produced, note was taken on the teacher’s appreciation about the phenomenon studied. Immediately a text was made with everything mentioned taking as reference the notes captured at the time of the interview. Subsequently, an analysis and interpretation of the results was carried out through a coding of the data obtained, for this the help of the ATLAS software was needed.you

Discussion of literature

According to (UNESCO, 2016) gender beliefs assume mathematics as an area focused on male gender and reading as a female area, based on the assumption that these competences are innate characteristics of children. Thus giving a false hierarchy to children for being the ones who mostly assume the logical part.

The stereotype is a belief that has poorly formed perceptions, which simplify issues in the social environment according to (Fernández Poncela, 2003).

Prejudice is a hostile attitude towards someone or a certain group for being part of a certain social group according to (Allport Gordon, 1968).

The definition of gender concept is constituted in relation to power, as a collective and individual identity, and as a set of social and cultural values ​​(Lamas, 1996)

Gender stereotypes, according to (Gonzales Gabaldon, 1999), are beliefs, ideas shared by society as a whole about the differences between men and women.

Gender transversalization in education. (Tomé, 1999). He says that the school receives socialized men and women in male and female genres, so, not intervening, reinforces, maintains, produces and reproduces gender stereotypes. In addition to the above, they point out that in many occasions it is a problem that neither teachers nor students are aware that.

(Acker, 2003) indicates that many of the studies on gender and education argue that teachers have an important role in the frustration of girls’ potential, either through the treatment and differential expectations of each sex or as part of the regime of School gender, through the models of masculinity and femininity contained in everyday practices as a group of students, schedules and in the sexual division of teachers of teachers. Most studies suggest that men get more attention by the professed, independent of sex, and that the contents and work in the classroom are often planned depending on them (Tomé, 1999) (Acker, 2003)

Families as sociabilizer agents of the genre: gender socialization begins from the first years of life in this way the family is the main learning environment, where symbols begin to be shared and acquire a type of language, roles and values social that characterize the culture of belonging. In the opinion of (Rodríguez Pérez, 2007), "The family is the most important socialization agent in the life of each individual, because it constitutes the link between the individual and society"

Gender stereotypes in parenting: Many of the expectations and forms of relationship that are established between parents and children are influenced by gender stereotypes. (Camussi & Leccardi, 2005) point out that stereotyped expectations are not simply beliefs and perceptions about the different qualities of each sex; They also acquire a value that identifies the characteristics and types of behavior considered desirable for the members of each gender.

Results

Identity construction

In the construction of gender identity it is established in a way in which the inequality between men and women is assimilated as normal, although it is true that between these two figures there are physical differences that are notable, this is translated into differences that are taken beyond of the sex of each one, starting with a poor distribution of homework, later outside this and finally causing inequality in the labor field.

Roles allocation

At present, due to the social construction that is maintained, it is still considered that women are obliged to express weakness, dedicate themselves to motherhood and home, thus subtracting many tasks for which she is not "suitable".

On the contrary, men are attributed to those tasks related to strength, work outside the home, studies and the logical part. While it is true that currently the woman acquires an empowerment, seeking to be included in life beyond the raising of children and home tasks there is still the fact of being left out of broad tasks that are in full ability to perform.

The dynamics are constructed socially, for example, pink is determined for girls and blue for boys, girls tend to be delicate and strong boys, words like "do not cry because boys do not cry" make a culture that does not It allows the boy to be sensitive and while the girl is allowed, this are ancient positions of society that continue to appear and that generate problems throughout, and one of the many is gender inequality.(Revelo, 2019) 

Teaching methods

How knowledge and skills influence pedagogical practice so that there is gender inequality?

This factor is considered as a consequence of the teaching processes: methods and techniques that are used in teaching.

The data obtained from the interviews show us that teachers care more about how much the child can learn, leave aside the importance of the emotional part, the gender issue for those most advanced age teachers has become a taboo subject where Many of them refuse to see their evolution as something acceptable in society in these times.

Although current society has shown that the concept of gender evolves from the hand of society, which was previously feminine because it is not the same meaning today, sometimes it makes teachers understand that there is currently a diversity of Gender that is born from childhood, teachers only concentrate as soon as the child can learn but not in their emotional part, and force a child to do certain activities that they do not like (Játiva Narváez, 2019)

Prejudices in teaching

How are prejudices translate in the allocation of roles in teaching practice?

The role of teaching assimilating practices in the gender difference is given by the allocation of roles that cultures and societies have been assimilating as normal

  • Home

Another factor to analyze in the investigation is how parents and children are given and that both this relationship or link also helps reproduce the inequality between genders. Family coexistence emphasizes that the male gender is the one who has money to sustain expenses. This idea is normalized in the eyes of children. Although this pattern is gradually modified, the idea of ​​distribution of roles depending on the gender is something that is reaching the head of girls and boys from an early age, thus maintaining a normalized idea of ​​inequality for when the Children grow.

Many times prejudices are ideas stimulated by parents, which sometimes distort themselves according to the way of thinking of each father, in children the first way of learning is through example, so what happens when certain behaviors or thoughts are questioned predisposed by parents. (Játiva Narváez, 2019) 

Discussion

The methodology used has been useful to get closer to the reality of the phenomenon.

Regarding the school as a reproductive of inequalities, the inability to structure the educational system in such a way that it is able to break the inequalities given from that point is observed.

The traditional structure in education is responsible for the allocation of roles, dictates what role each individual plays according to their gender.

The inequality for many sectors in society has been normalized until seeing it as something that must continue to be established in the same way: that is, to subtract importance from women and give more priority to the man, this does not only occur between groups of different genre, but women are also considered among them incapable due to the form in their genre has been built. This makes inequality look like something normal and goes from generation to generation.

For better understanding of the phenomenon, future research with mixed methodology could be structured: using qualitative and quantitative methods for collection and data work.

The in -depth interviews collect data that allows us to better know factors that influence the phenomenon studied, from this information the findings should be adapted to structure a questionnaire with questions to create a survey, it could be developed based on the encodifications taken from the interviews according to the data groups that the qualitative research threw. In this way the behavior of the phenomenon could be better than measuring it statistically, access to a large sample would be accessed and this would help us analyze more data

In this way, more solid and successful conclusions could be generated on the phenomenon and reinforce objectivity and validity.

Codes could be used: home, to have an idea about how the fact that there is gender inequality, starting with the most important nucleus of society: the family has been normalized: the family: the family: the family.

Conclusions

  • To carry out an investigation into the phenomenon studied, it is relevant to know origins, definitions.
  • It is important to know what methods and techniques are used for teaching, and how these factors later influence gender inequality. Also understand where prejudices come from and how they are established in the new societies.
  • It is necessary to understand how a change in education could give with an approach to break defined roles and make the development of both genres go.

In the search for professional people who transmit their neutral perception with a clear vision, it allowed us.

  • Throughout the investigation it was necessary.

Bibliography

  • Acker, s. (2003). Gender and education. Sociological reflections on women, teaching and feminism. Sandra Narcea s.A. Of editions.
  • Allport Gordon. (1968). The nature of prejudice. Buenos Aires.
  • Camussi, e., & Leccardi, C. (2005). Stereotypes of Working Women: The Power of Expectations. Social Science Information, 113-140.
  • Fernández Poncela, to. M. (2003). Prejudices and stereotypes. Sayings, jokes and riddles, players and transgressors. Experimental Anthropology Magazine.
  • Gonzales Gabaldon, B. (1999). Stereotypes as a factor of socialization in gender. Communicate, 79-88.
  • Játiva Narváez, M. (December 15, 2019). Interview with basic education factors that reproduce inequality. (V. Núñez Pillajo, interviewer)
  • Lamas, m. (nineteen ninety six). Gender The cultural construction of difference. Mexico: pp. 327-366.
  • Reveal, a. (October 25, 2019). Factors that reproduce gender inequality in basic education. (V. Núñez Pillajo, interviewer)
  • Rodríguez Pérez, A. (2007). MAIN MODELS OF SOCIALIZATION. Dialnet, p.92.
  • I took, a. (1999). A path to coeducation (instruments for reflection and intervention). Dialnet, 171-198.
  • UNESCO . (2016). Gender inequality in learning achievements in primary education. .

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