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Why does a lack of socialization cause problems in a community?
Answer: Socialization is the process through which individuals become a responsible member of the civic society. Such process helps to build the societal norms and expectations of other individuals of a specific society. It helps to inculcate the societal beliefs, norms, values and points of common interest, which benefits a society. Socialization is a learned process and individuals can only exhibit proper societal behavior through appropriate social interactions. There are various agents of socialization. These include school environment, peer groups, one’s workplace, and places of religious practice. Lack of socialization may contribute to various problems in a given community.
First of all, an individual who does not socialize would be unable to reflect on his or her behavior. Individuals in a society act as instruments of feedback system and provide an opportunity for an individual towards self-development in adherence to societal norms. Secondly, socialization provides an opportunity to inculcate moral values and moral development. Until and unless an individual he or she cannot differentiate between the good and the evil. Thirdly, socialization helps to transfer value systems from one generation to another generation. Hence, a lack of socialization will lead to erosion of cultural values, democratic values and moral values in successive generations.

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Although an individual is born with certain genetic traits, his or her behavioral expressions are nurtured through socialization. Therefore, it may be speculated that if an individual is not properly nurtured through socialization, the nature of an individual may not change and this is alarming if such nature of an individual is not permitted under societal norms. Deviance from societal norms may lead to crimes, which may destabilize a particular society. Lack of socialization may also lead to fast erosion of social capital. Social capital has been recognized as the one of the important factors driving a stable democracy.
Example: Lack of socialization, is reflecting on the deterioration of value systems in our youth. This is the reason why respect for others is eroding and intercommunity and racial clashes are still prevalent in this modern educated society.
Why is it said that culture is the bedrock of a civilization?
Answer: Culture is defined as a set of values, beliefs, and practices exhibited by a group of individuals living in a community. Cultures are learned and practiced through socialization. Inculcation of specific culture drives behavioral expressions and habits in individuals belonging to a community or society. Culture is indeed the bedrock of any civilization. For example, the human civilization formed by Homo sapiens nearly 2, 50,000 years ago, have grouped themselves under different communities. Such communities are based on culture and are established over time for their self- sustenance. Although different communities might exist all throughout the globe some basic cultures have remained homogenous over period of time. Such cultures include parental care, healthy food habits, respect for elders and other people, and social interactions. The constancy of such cultures across different communities and different generations, has established human race over the periods of time.
Culture helps to establish certain societal norms that benefit various interactions amongst individuals in a society. Culture may be divided into material culture and non-material culture. Material culture is the tangible instrument and defines capitalist and economic norms needed to sustain material flow in a society. Non-material culture on the other hand represents the beliefs, ideas, attitudes which can be transmitted from one individual to another. Transfer and recognition of material and non-material cultures (especially cultural universals) across different generations forms the corner stone of a stable civilization.
Example: Material culture, like providing somebody with a justifiable remuneration for his or her service. This helps in flow of economy, and if such cultures are not practiced it will lead to exploitation and clashes in the workplace.
Are we controlled by the media?
Answer: Yes, to a great extent we are controlled by media. Each and every individual of this present day society is exposed to certain alternative forms of media in their day to day activities. The various forms of media to which the individuals of present day society are exposed consist of print media and electronic media. Print media is represented through newspapers, journals and mailers. The electronic media is vast and represents internet, information technology resources, mobile phones and social media like facebook, twitter and others.
The role of media cannot be undermined in the current context and individuals across all age group are impacted by media. Media plays both a beneficial and detrimental role in the process of socialization. Our social norms are controlled through the media. This is because media helps to socialize amongst ourselves, pass on the value systems, beliefs and morals not only across different societies but to the next generations too. Media has provided the extended the platform of socialization. It drives our way of speech, expressions, behavior, attire and our habits and even the way we should communicate.
Media provides a powerful platform to socialize, and unite over a common issue across different individuals and society in a very short period of time. Media drives our values and encourages us to exhibit replication of actions for societal benefits. Media also drives the life changing functions and influences are consumerism habits. Social networking drives constructions of reality and provides the simulated platform of physical socialization. However, the detrimental effects of media, like exhibition of violence, alcoholism, chroming and smoking are also inculcated in certain individuals. Such adaptations through media exposure may jeopardize the norms of physical socialization. Hence, although media drives our actions in day to day activities, the presence of a physical society is important to inculcate the proper actions.
Example: Often certain news in the electronic media is not true and is distorted from its original occurrence. This can lead to riots or community clashes, which leads to casualties.
Social stratification stops upward mobility. Discuss.
Answer: Social stratification is defined as the categorization of people into rankings and strata, based on socio-economic variables of wealth, income, race, education and power, by various individuals forming a society. Sociologists have recognized that such stratification is the root cause of inequality which prevails in a society. They commented that stratification is just not an individual phenomenon but it is based on groups, classes and other common traits prevailing in a set of individuals at any given point of time. Stratification is often viewed on different contexts. In some societies they are done based on wealth, income, richness or on the basis of wisdom or morals.
Upward mobility is defined as the increase or upward shift in social class. Such upward shifts may occur with respect to acquisition of wealth, increase in income, educational qualifications or positions and power in the society. It is true that social stratification prevents upward mobility. Such philosophy may have different perspectives based on the society to which an individual is exposed. It is evident that whenever a person is judged by wealth, there will be clear demarcation between the rich and the poor. An individual who is poor will never get access to the rich society. On the other hand the same individual might have suitable and higher education qualifications to be accepted in the society of learned individuals. On the other hand the same rich individual might not have the upward mobility towards the society of learned individuals. Hence, upward mobility is determined by stratifications and unless one acquires the specific requisites as demanded by various societies, upward mobility or increase in social class will be prevented.
Example: Often when individuals from a poor society exhibits merit and are successful, we always trace back to his or her financial background. This is an act of disrespect and beyond the dignity of that individual.
Why is it so difficult to reduce global inequality?
Answer: Global inequality is defined as the inequality in income and social status across different individuals belonging to a same society or a different society. Such inequalities can never be reduced or would be very difficult to reduce due to the socio-economic, demographic and educational disparities amongst individuals belonging to respective societies. Inequalities are also created, and maintained meticulously by various developed countries to control the global economy and societal status.
For example due to the difference in time and difference in requirement of per capita wages, most of the American companies have outsourced their jobs to China and India. In one way, such actions are boosting the economies of India and China but the aspect of inequality lies in the exploitation of workers. Such workers are much underpaid than their American counterparts, and hence inequality will prevail in spite of similar educational qualifications.
On the other hand, individuals belonging to a specific religion, race or ethnicity may be preferred in various employment and educational opportunities. Legal racism has persisted in South Africa for years which have led to racial clashes over social inequality. Hence, economic inequality and social inequalities are the driving factors in creating stratifications and persistence of poverty. Inequality might prevail on the basis of gender and sex. Although most companies in the world are guided by the value statement of equal opportunity employer, still males are preferred over females in various jobs. Such inequalities may arise from physical and physiological limitations which would always persist. Hence, from the above facts and figures, it is evident that reduction of global inequality will be difficult.
Example: In the army males are preferred than females, owing to their physiological advantage of greater strength. However, sometimes it is a perception and should be judged accordingly.
Why is deviance considered to be a relative rather than absolute concept?
Answer: Deviance is defined as the swaying away from the usual and prevailing societal norms which binds the individuals of a society together. The societal norms may reflect certain cultural, religious, social and scientific beliefs and values. When such rules or laws are violated it leads to deviance. Deviance may be of two types, primary and secondary. A primary deviance may not be long lasting and may get reoriented to the original and accepted societal norms after a brief period of time. On the other hand secondary deviance is a permanent shift in the behavior and attitude of individuals which are unaccepted by societal rules and regulations.
Deviance should be considered as a relative concept rather than an absolute context.
Example: For instance, divorce was once thought of as a major deviance in societal systems because it led to fragmentation of families and impacted children. However, under the present socio-economic and cultural context, breakups are viewed in various societies as a matured decision which benefits individuals and their family including their children in the long run.
Intake of Marijuana was once considered a crime across the globe and it was considered a major deviance from societal norms. However, after the legalization of marijuana due to its medical use by various states of America, it is not considered a crime in such US societies. On the other hand, in societies where marijuana is still not legalized, such actions even used for medical purposes are viewed as deviance. Hence, the above discussions clearly reveal that deviance should be viewed as a relative context rather than absolute context.

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