# bounds of science

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The Bounds of science

Introduction

The word science that has been viewed by many as a branch of knowledge closely linked to philosophy especially during 19th century heavily relies and builds on explanations and predictions. In most instances, science has been trying to explain the universe in such a way that facts are presented and proved beyond reasonable doubt. However, science is a broad body of knowledge with various branches of applied science, natural science and social science as well. Specifically natural science has been closely and almost used interchangeably with philosophy as both tend to explain natural phenomena. Philosophy has been characterized by different researchers as the study of ideas that dwell on knowledge, truth as well as the nature and meaning of life. The definition makes philosophy close to natural science as both try to explain the truth behind events and other natural phenomena’s that occur almost on daily basis. Philosophy can also be viewed as a certain set of ideas and thoughts about knowledge, truth, the type and meaning of life. This is also set of ideas that try to explain how to carry out something or even how to live with it.

In many instances as well mathematics has also been critically viewed as a close associate of both science and philosophy. Regarding definition, mathematics tries to unravel the mystery of hidden patterns and in the process helps to understand better what surrounds us. The science of math is trying to explain the occurrence of various phenomena by use of numbers and other mathematical models.

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However, the basic principles of all these explanations are that all the explanations must be based on facts and far-reaching principles that were bearing the ultimate challenge of explaining how some phenomena come about and the logic behind the facts and arguments. It is from this fundamentalism that mathematics can solidly be classified as a philosophy and science as well.

The science of math

Phenomena have for a long time especially ancient ones been believed to be as a just a normal, natural phenomena. However, with scientific progression, innovation and the unrelenting urge to discover and explain how these phenomena come from many philosophers and scientists have managed to state categorically the facts behind these happenings. Specifically in this regard mathematics has played a big role in helping explain why some events occur and consequently assist them to predict the occurrence of phenomena .one of the basic principles that have continually been in the application is the probability principle. Probability is a branch of applied mathematics which has found diverse use in science, philosophy, and even pure mathematics. According to mathematicians, the probability is viewed as the likelihood of an event or phenomena happening. Probability principles have also been heavily relied upon in the philosophical principles of predictive.

According to Hacking (12) the axiomatic probability theory was discovered in the seventeenth century although he still argues that the use of dice and other objects making use of random selection and occurrence were still being practiced by then. Scientifically probability is very much in agreement with most scientific principles as it heavily relies on past experiences and experiments to predict the occurrence of any future event or phenomena. Taking a basic example of three racers with past well-known records in various race events, the phenomena can be sued to explain why if the racer with the most compact and winning history wins again. However, some factors must be like fitness, and other derailing factors must be kept constant in such a case. The probability of the best racer who have been maintaining a winning record, the chances of him or her extending the same will be positively determined by the use of probability formula that the likelihood of the best racer winning the race is given by the number of favorable outcomes (which he or she has the majority as compared to other racers) divided by the total number of outcomes which is the sum of all the times that the race has taken place. Materially from this context, the best racer winning the race is solidly supported by the probability axiom and philosophically can be termed as highly likely.

There have been other instances where math have also been explained to explain the occurrence of some phenomena. A good example is an age and disease occurrence perception. Technically, age progression is a mathematical progression as it revolves around adding of age on top of what an individual has. On the other hand, medics argue that some diseases like diabetes are more likely to attack an individual who is aged as their metabolism balance dwindles. The progression of age which is a mathematical concept causes all these and can, therefore, be used to explain why such kind of diseases affect mostly aged people.

In other instances, there are philosophers who have dwelled on logical who argue that mathematics is heavily shrouded in logic and consequently argue that numbers or numerals present the physical presence of objects or even people. For example when someone says that there are two people in a room it shows the number of people who are physically present in that room. In case, one more person enters the room, the number of people who are physically present in the room increases to three, which is the logic behind the increase in the number of people in the room. In such a case, the science of math has been successfully applied to explain the increase in the number of people in the room.

Regarding Empiricism, that argues that mathematics is indispensable to all empirical sciences. In such cases, the existence of mathematical entities is viewed as the best explanation for the experience. The concept is heavily relied upon when explaining the behaviors and characters of people which is ideally a philosophical concept. However, empiricism relies on mathematics as the number of times that certain behaviors or characters observed as used as the fundamental judgment platform (Brown, James,8). In all the cases, math has been used to explain why some events occur and the reason it has occurred which closely relates it to science and, therefore, making it be viewed as the close accomplice of science, basically the two are one and the same.

Some of the cardinal principles behind mathematics have always been proving. In fact, most mathematical models and equations revolve around proving whether some phenomena are true and what makes them true. In such instances, an algebraic expression has often been applied to unravel this impounding mystery. Algebra is a branch of mathematics which deals with symbols and how to manipulate numbers so as to come to a logical conclusion. Algebra has successfully been used to unravel numbers mystery as well especially when trying to predict the value of missing numbers and sales. Instances such as the one explained above include calculating the value of shares received if for example ten people share a hundred dollars equally to get the share of each person one just needs to divide a hundred by ten. The fact that each of the people will revive 10$ can be explained mathematically by use of such calculation.

In other instances especially time mathematics can be scientifically applied to explain how time progresses from morning to mid-morning then to afternoon and finally to evening. The mathematical logic behind this phenomenon being the increase in seconds that are then converted to minutes and ultimately to hours before finally settling to a day. In such instances the mathematical conversions like seconds to minutes and minutes to hours and finally a day help in explaining how time moves and the instance of the occurrence of day and night.

Based on the fact that science is based on principles of evidence that is gathered through experiments as well as observations. In the same way, math heavily relies on evidence especially when it comes to counting making it more of a science and applicable in explaining phenomena. The other principle being theories relating to evidence as well as theories those normally move from the particular to the general. In the same way, all the phenomena must be arithmetically proved and, in fact, most of the evidence makes use of arithmetic’s to prove their points. Lastly, the principle of the observation that contradicting evidence usually falsifies a theory also applies to mathematics as well as we cannot have two equal numbers. Therefore, the science of math is a crucial axiom that can always be applied to explain the occurrence of various phenomena.

Works cited

Hacking I .The Emergence of Probability: A Philosophical Study of Early Ideas about Probability, Induction and Statistical Inference, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-68557-3 (2006)

Brown, James ,Philosophy of Mathematics. New York: Routledge.ISBN 978-0-415-96047-2(2008).

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