René Descartes’S Mentalities Crises
René Descartes’s mentalities crises
René Descartes was a philosopher born on March 31, 1596 in France. He would begin his studies at the La Flèche school, school with high reputation at European level at that time. This was where he acquired interest in mathematics. After several years receiving training, he said he was confused and unhappy with the education received and consequently began studying independently. The year 1618 was in which he would write his first work a music compendium.
The following year the well -known episode of the stove took place, when, reflecting next to a stove your famous phrase "I think, then I exist". That same year he begins to believe in the path that leads to the foundation of science by applying a method very similar to that used with mathematics. This requires and concrete for 9 years ending the process with the publication of the work regulates ad directionm engineii, which contains the elementary of his thinking.
He leaves to live in the Netherlands, where he will write most of his works. In 1937 he will publish three essays on: Meteoros, Diatopic and Geometry. These were preceded by a speech of the method to conduct reason well and seek truth in science. He publishes the Principia Philosophiae in 1644, here he exposes his thinking about physics and metaphysics and introduces philosophy into the school environment. He moved to Stockholm in 1649 and would die there 4 months later on February 11, 1650.
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Descartes lived between 1596 and 1650. As for the cultural and historical context of this era, a series of crisis which took place in Europe can be highlighted. These correspond to the development of the bourgeoisie and the need to conceive the world based on the concept of reason. The crisis entailed the definitive fall of the foundations of medieval Europe, as well as established the pillars of what would later be modern Europe.
The crises were three: economic-social, political and mentalities. The first of all had its origin in the implementation of capitalism as an economic system, this was due to the rise in prices as a result of maritime trade and between colonies. The peasants rebelled starless without success. With the aim of protecting the production of each country germinates a current known as mercantilism consisted of reducing importation and increasing export.
The second crisis was based on absolute monarchies. Due to the increase in expenses they were forced to raise taxes. The upper classes were exempt from paying them leading to protests from the town that ended in wars in some cases. This situation of instability and confrontation entailed the appearance of hunger, as well as of the diseases, among which the plague stood out, a disease that caused the death of a high percentage of the population.
Finally, it is worth highlighting the crisis of the mentalities originated by the lack of guarantees when responding to the needs of the moment that the ancient models raised. Cartesian thought created by Descartes emerged to try to answer them. Rationalization gained ground influenced by the Cartesian method and the development of science. The latter occurred in fields such as astronomy, medicine, physics and mathematics. The artistic current that predominated was the Baroque, a current that sustained the thought that reality was reduced to appearance in addition to breaking the reducing harmony and balance.
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