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Adaptation
For a long time, Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution, based on adaptation and natural selection has been the most believed theory. However, it seems that Charles Darwin’s theoretical explanation of adaptation seemed to focus mostly in one area. His explanation based on the structural and biological change in the body of organisms for the sake of survival in the existing environment. The author of this article however comes up with an argument to counter this explanation on adaptation.
The author makes it clear that he does not dispute the theory of evolution. He however thinks that there is a vital area in the explanation of adaptation that has been completely forgotten. This is the role of the political and social conditions in the process of organism adaptation. The author argues that the social and political life have a great impact on the condition of the environment at the time of an organism existence. The change in the organism’s environment is the one that leads to the organism’s adaptation. To support this fact, the author cites the evolution of the moths in England during the industrial revolution. He accepts the fact that the moths changed colour from grey to black is perfect example of adaptation for the moths’ survival. He also agrees with the fact that the colour change was brought about by environmental pollution due to the industrial revolution. The author, however, has a problem in the way most scientists leave environmental pollution at that point and go on explaining the moth’s adaptation.

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He argues that Industrial Revolution and the resultant environmental pollution were caused by something. The industrial revolution was caused by the social, political and changes among humans at the time, which ought to be discussed too.
The author maintains that the environment is not autonomous. He says, “The environment is a product of the organism, just as the organism is a product of the environment” CITATION Sin96 p 500 l 2057 (Singer 500) He disputes the fact that the environment is independent and can be studied on its own. He argues that humans and the environment interrelate and therefore cannot be considered as independent and dependent variables, a concept he calls ‘the Cartesian’ reasoning. None of the above entities has a greater position than the other. Both are equal in the sense that the environment can influence organisms’ change while organisms too can influence change in the environment, triggering another change in the organisms.
Singer brings up another new concept of nature. Nature is assumed to be that part of the environment that has not been reached by humans. He argues that this might not be entirely true, quoting Raymond Williams who says, “A considerable part of what we call nature is a product of human design and human labour” CITATION Sin96 p 501 l 2057 (Singer 501) Singer seems to dismiss the fact that nature must be that part unreached by humans. He seems to imply that some of the scientific study on what we term as nature may be inaccurate. The gorillas for example, when studied in our nature are found to be introverted and fearful towards humans, retreating at human’s approach. This is as per Fossey’s research carried out in Rwanda. However, Singer counters this observation, arguing that probably, these gorillas were not studied in their appropriate natural conditions. He brings forth another study of gorillas, carried out by Japanese Masazumi Mitani, in what he thinks is the most natural condition for them. Here, the gorillas stare and scream at humans but rarely run away. He seems to imply that our widely used definition of nature might not be correct thus bring forth biased observations and conclusions
Merril Singer brings up counter-ideas worth consideration. Could it be true that our ethological studies have been carried out in the wrong fields bringing forth wrong conclusions? It is true that adaptation is not entirely a scientific process. Singer’s idea is that in research, focus should also be placed on the factors that lead to environmental change, therefore prompting the organism’s adaptation. The environment and the organism have both equal influences on each other and therefore studying each as an independent entity would yield a not-so-accurate result.

Works Cited
BIBLIOGRAPHY Singer, Merrill. “Farewell to Adaptationism: Unnatural Selection and the Politics of Biology.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly (1996): 496-515. Print.

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