Sources: The New York Times
Summary one: Climate change is altering lakes and streams
According to the scientists who studied both lakes and rivers, they found that human activities such as the burning of fossils have increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the environment by about forty percent. Some of these gases mixed with inland water, which affects the organisms living in them (Craig et al. 2008)
Researchers found that the high amount of carbon dioxide in water lowers the pH in the ocean and this affects the way the corals usually make their calcium skeleton in water. Again, organisms living in water depend on the changes in the chemical of the marine to detect their predators and search for their food. Interfering with the pH of the water affects their lives, as they may not be in a position to identify their predators.
To estimate the level of carbon dioxide in water, they used two variables to test this, and it included the concentration of the organic carbon available and the temperature of the ocean. On Thursday, the scientists found that the level of the acidity had tripled between the periods of 1981 to 2015. To know the effect of the acidity in the sea, they used humble water flea. Frequently, the insects had a massive crest on their head and long spikes, which helped them, detect their predators. They lowered the pH of water by using hydrochloric acid, and they found that it affects the fleas by shortening both the crested head and the spikes thus, making them less efficient when detecting their predators.
Wait! Oceans. paper is just an example!
Sources: The New York Times
Summary two: NASA Ranks 2017 as the Second-Warmest Year on Record
According to the research conducted for three consecutive years, from 2014 to 2017. The report indicated that 2017 was the second warmest year after 2016 and toping both 2014 and 2015. The news is from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which used various ways to analyze the temperature data. The changes in temperature are caused by human activities (Simmons et al. 2017).
However, what surprises is that the report in the data indicated that the El Nino exacerbated the temperatures of the year 2015 and 2016, which is the Pacific climatic pattern that is usually associated with temperatures that are higher than average. El Nino was experienced in March 2015 and ran all the way to May 2016. However, absent of the El Nino in 2017 caused the high temperatures. According to the data provided by NASA, it is evident that 2017 was the year that recorded the second warmest year without El Nino.
Nevertheless, the rising climate change has caused some states to develop policies, which outlines the best ways of controlling climate change. For instance, San Francisco grew a way that the excess carbon that is released on the roads could be curbed. The vision is to cut the emission of the poisonous gasses emitted into the environment by at least 40 percent in 2030. The officials of the flagship aim at releasing more than 4.2 million electric cars on the roads. It is the best way of minimizing the release of the carbon to the environment.
The use of the vehicles, which use electricity, is good because it is environmentally friendly. The country also encourages many people to reside on the places near to the transit stops because it helps in minimizing transportation by vehicles, which causes toxic emission of gasses.
Williamson, Craig E., et al. “Lakes and streams as sentinels of environmental change in terrestrial and atmospheric processes.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6.5 (2008): 247-254.
Simmons, A. J., et al. “A reassessment of temperature variations and trends from global reanalyses and monthly surface climatological datasets.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 143.702 (2017): 101-119.
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