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Name of Student
Name of University
19 May 2015
What is “institutional racial discrimination” (institutional racism) and how does it originate? 2) Discuss whether you think specific individuals are complicit in the perpetuation of institutional discrimination. If you think certain individuals are complicit, then how are they complicit? If individuals are not complicit, then how does institutional racism persist in modern society?
Institutional racial discrimination is a most organized form of race difference which is practiced openly and with legal sanction, in terms of privileges being enjoyed by some, and being downtrodden by the upper echelons (Rankin, 2005). It is an ascribed status because it is not earned or achieved, but determined by birth, mainly by biological heredity, like genes and blood. This racism may not always be overt or legal, but may have its subtle and covert shades and tones. Racism has been there throughout history and civilisation but its institutionalized form, in stark and black shades started with the slave trade in USA, where the blacks and whites became totally separated, in extreme polarities.
Rather than individuals, it is the superior collective groups which are involved in the racism conflict promotion. But yes there are individual figureheads and masterminds who love to create an inferior and superior gap, and keep that alive (Bullock, 1976). For instance, United nations collectively create a lot of racial tensions, but there are the top people who make things happen more emphatically with their authority and power.

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One example is the World Bank, whose president creates economic tensions world wide-thus we see the very rich white nations, and the marginal and poor black nations at the other end. Individual racism, does exist out of personal prejudices, as we see in homes and schools, where domestic servants are ill-treated in the name of an inferior race.
Hence, racism is a collective effort, with a lot of sprinkling of power individuals at the top.
Question 2
1) What is “patriarchy?” 2) If your favorite relative or friend asked whether you think the U.S. is a patriarchal society, how would you respond? 3) Spend some time in the Virtual Library and try to find social science evidence to support your response to #2 above.
Patriarchy usually refers to a male dominated society, where all institutions are based on the final decision making of males, be it family, business or government (Roberts, 1993). This can be either rigid, authoritarian/authoritative, or benevolent and liberal or humanist in character. This rigidity is especially noted in third world countries, with some exceptions, where the rigid form can degenerate into downright brutal or barbaric savagery, immersing itself into sadism or perversion. This rule has been the norm since history, but traces of matriarchy can be found in certain tribes, yet not very widespread or established (Kjellstrand, 1988).
My personal response, to the question from a relative or a friend regarding USA being a patriarchal society would be, in the affirmative, but this is a country where patriarchy experiments itself on various angles, hence sticking to a liberal/humanist type. Its core belief is gender equality, but its practice is patriarchy due to conforming reasons, but a flexible one, which keeps itself open to the other forms of rule too. USA has probably hundred percent equality for both genders in the pursuance of educational opportunities., but the top positions in government, business and universities are still male dominated. Religion, American Catholics definitely, is a very male oriented religion, which unquestioningly abides by the tradition of a male Pope.
Question 3
1) What is affirmative action? 2) Does affirmative action discriminate against non-minorities in U.S. society?
Affirmative action is favouring or discriminating positively against minorities, or those groups who faced discrimination in terms of deprivation of rights in all sectors, in the past (Ronald, 1993). Thus affirmation means getting more favours than the general public, who have been enjoying rights in the normal course of life.
This started in USA after the Second World War. Unemployed groups were the target, later it came down to ethnic minorities like Native Americans, Afro-Americans and now other immigrants from non-western parts of the world (Kennedy, 1997). In spite of its specific applications, a lot needs to be done, specially one cannot obliterate the memory of violence faced by the minority by the white majority.
Rankin, S. R.; Reason, R. D. (2005). Differing Perceptions:How Students of Color and White Students Perceive Campus Climate for Underrepresented Groups. Journal of College Student Development. 46 (1): 43–61.
Bullock III, C. S. & Rodgers Jr., H. R. (1976). Institutional Racism: Prerequisites, Freezing, and Mapping. Phylon. 37 (3), 212-223.
Roberts, Dorothy. Racism and Patriarchy in the Meaning of Motherhood. (1993). Faculty Scholarship. Paper 595.Kjellstrand CM. (1988). Age, sex, and race inequality in renal transplantation. Arch. Intern. Med. 148 (6): 1305–9.
Ronald Takaki. (1993). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. New York: Little, Brown & Co., (1993), 277-283.
Kennedy BP, Kawachi I, Lochner K, Jones C, Prothrow-Stith D (1997). (Dis)respect and black mortality. Ethn Dis 7 (3): 207–14.

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