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anthropology

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Words: 2200

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Name of the Student
Professor’s name
Anthropology
23rd November 2015
Background
News through print media is one of the important information busters in our day to day life. The news values are the moral responsibility of news reporter or journalists. Any news should provide information regarding what was the incident, who were involved in the incident, where did the incident take place, why did the incident took place and how did the incident happen. These are the primary issues that should only be covered by the journalists and nothing more or nothing less (Soloski 43-145).
However, various instances indicate, that there is a bias in presenting a news item. Such bias occurs from the political, demographical, economical, and social perspective of the country or the governance, where the news is published. Journalists should present the news in its original form without any distortions, which might influence a particular segment of the society or the Governance of a State. It is very common, that modern day journalism, whether in developed or developing countries, tries to appease the readers or the governance and often sways away from the reality of an incident (Sue).
Journalists should not be analyst or provide commentary of an incident, and the readers or viewers should have the option to analyze the incident without any chance of elemental bias. Facts must be sterile and should be presented in a non-committal fashion.

Wait! anthropology paper is just an example!

Certain governments strongly enforce the validity of published news. For example, in the United Kingdom there is a system of legal enforceability, where incidences are presented in a spurious or committal manner. This was done to protect the general mass from any controversial issues that might disturb the societal sanctity (Soloski 43-145).
News has always focussed on issues like political, local and socio-economic aspects like issues of cold war, inflation, militancy and anti-incumbency. Recently, the news media or print media or visual media has faced criticism for either over emphasizing news or under emphasizing an event. This deviation and non-compliance to originality are driven by various factors, from political to social. News articles are often packed with sensationalism regarding political topics, specifically on terrorism and economy. The present article would appraise the reporting of an incidence that recently took place. However, the news was portrayed differently by different sources. In this article it would be evaluated, the possible reasons for such deviance in reporting (Sue).
Incidence Description
The incidence was regarding the crash of Russian Airliner. The airliner named Kogalymavia Airline A321 (airline number 7K9268) crashed in Egypt on 31st October 2015.The airliner was originally planned to fly from Egypt to St. Petersburg, Russia. The flight took off from the famous resort town of Sharm-Al-Sheikh, as scheduled. However, it crashed in the middle of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt. There were 217 passengers and 7 crew members on board, including 25 children, a total of 224 people. Most of the passengers were Russians. The aircraft captain had reported a mechanical failure and requested to change course to land in Cairo.
However, after such message the flight disappeared from the radar. The aircraft fell about 1500 meters in last 21 seconds. The wreckage had been identified and there were no chances of anybody alive. The body of the airliner was completely damaged. All passengers were killed. Investigators had begun trying to determine the cause of airliner’s crash. This investigation was initiated to find out whether the airliner crash was induced by terrorist activities or was it an incidence of mechanical failure.
Reflection on the Incidence Report
As a reader of the following article or report, it is apparent that the incidence could either be a mishap or an accident or an attempt of militant attack. The report is pretty transparent with the nature of the incidence, non-committal speculation as to why the incidence happened, the conversations of the key individuals involved, and the place of crash. This is an ideal format of a report because the incidence has only been highlighted and there has been no element of bias involved in the process. It helps the reader to frame his or her logic on the perspective of the incidence. Further, the report did not sensitize on the hopes of anybody staying alive, because all the wreckage had been thoroughly checked by authorities. However, this incidence was published in different news agencies from different countries which had specific agenda in portraying the news. I would reflect upon 4 news article published by four different news agencies, belonging to four different countries.
Ref: http://www.cnn.com/2015/10/31/middleeast/egypt-plane-crash/
The above report was published in the CNN. CNN reflected the apprehensions of Egyptian authorities over the plane crash. First of all, the authorities were shown to make a mistake on the number of children died. The number was put down to 17 compared to the original, which were 25. This was confirmed by Russian authorities too. The death of children is a sensitive issue and from the beginning the report started for Egyptian authorities. Moreover, the authorities kept themselves safe, that there was nothing wrong with the aircraft before flying. However, as we see the pilot did ask for help and aware the airport authorities about a technical failure. The Egyptian authorities portrayed to be a possible “technical failure”, in spite the black box was found. On the other hand, we see both the Russian authorities and the Egyptian authorities have been shown to deny any militant attack of ISIS on the airliner. However, it is well known that Egypt is fighting militant insurgency in Sinai. The Egyptian authorities want to establish that they have ISIS under control, and they have controlled them. On the other hand, Russian governance cannot accept criticism from their people, due to the recent attacks of Russians on these militants. Hence, the news was reported in such a way, so as to sensitize the common people of Russia, that ISIS has not taken any revenge. France and Germany, as a measure of safety decided to divert their routes over Egypt and interestingly there were no comments of French or German officials regarding the cause of blast was portrayed. This is natural because these two countries did not have a vested interested on the news and CNN decided to focus only Egypt and Russia.
Ref: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-34687139
The above report was published by BBC. Once again the news reflected that Egyptian authorities denied that the plane was brought down by the ISIS militants. They even clarified that the possibility of a missile attack is completely non-feasible, considering the altitude of the airliner and the present missiles that ISIS possessed. Even the Russian authorities denied the chances of militant attack just like the news reported by CNN. However, the news published in BBC put additional points to indicate the disturbance in Sinai area. It portrayed that Egypt was suffering from militant attacks, and certainly a compassionate approach or a robust approach is required towards ISIS. The news was clearly pointing to the suspicion of a militant attack. Britain and USA are formidable powers, and sensitizing the general people regarding a possible militant involvement; it might be easy to launch attacks on ISIS militants. The news might sensitize the general people, and they should not raise any questions on governance policy. British Airways took a solemn decision that till the reasons of crash are not unrevealed, they would not change their routes. Once again, this speaks of British culture. This indicated that Britain are never afraid of such militants and have all the options to fight state sponsored terrorism.
Ref: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2015/10/31/world/russian-airliner-224-aboard-crashes-mountainous-area-egypt/
The above report was published by the Japanese News Agency. The depth of the news article clearly indicated that they just wanted to narrate the incidence, without any element of bias. However, the death of children was under-reported, may be on humanitarian grounds. As the CNN report stated and Russian officials confirmed, that 25 children died due to the mishap. However, the Japanese report indicated that only 17 children died in the aircraft tragedy. The news detailed regarding the support systems that were activated after the plane crashed. Being an Asian country, the sense of duty and disaster management issues are prime importance than projecting militancy or mechanical failure. The Japanese news perhaps believed that Japan is an icon in technological front, so mechanical failure would not be an issue to attract readers. Moreover, Japan has not been bothered with mass terrorism and therefore, it might seem like a far distant phenomenon. On the other hand, the news mentions that 45 ambulances rushed to the site. Compared to CNN and BBC, such information might seem petty. However, such information regarding activating disaster management teams, in times of crisis management, may be more pertinent in Japanese context.
Ref: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2015-10/31/c_134769673.html
The above report was from a Chinese news agency. Out of all the four reports, this report was detailed and expressed non-committal views. The controversy of child death was put aside because there was controversy with the number of children who died in the airliner mishap. It clearly indicated that the news agency wanted to remain non-controversial. It portrayed the communications of different officials, with their designations. Hence, it could be stated that such claims or comments were not done by the news agency, and it exactly portrayed facts that were revealed. This is the only news amongst the four reports that confirmed that the pilot communicated the issue of technical failure. If we observe, the last line indicated the necessity of awareness of disaster management teams in China too, like that of Japan. Hence, the issue of 45 ambulances rushing to the site of crash was equally stressed; that was lacking in the CNN or BBC news. This is because the westernized countries are aware of the importance of crisis management and are very professional in rendering such services. However, Asian countries like China or India still lacks the precision in disaster management. This is very vital because both these countries are over populated and by chance any exigency occurs, the disaster management team should be kept sensitized through these incidences.
Perspective
All the four articles can be viewed from the perspective of historiography. This is because the incidence and information related to such incidence may be utilized in future course of actions (Wartz 411-436). As in the case study above, it would be prudent to address the technological advancement of safety with respect to mechanical components of flight. It could also be used to understand operations management and human behavior, which evoked such incidences. It may be utilized for better response system from airport authorities to manage a flight, in terms of such exigency. Lastly, this information may provide a direction regarding the line of terrorism and re-routing of different flights may be considered. Moreover, the incidence can be accepted with different dimensions from the perspective of politics and social scenario (Rial 375-397).
It might give rise to unethical attacks on so called militants. It has been witnessed, that often history is distorted and presented in such a fashion, to initiate political and economical motives of various Governments. As we are aware that the Russians had made attacks on the oil- units held by the ISIS. They have projected that the oil-fields were the strength of ISIS’s financial power to support militant and terrorist activities. There is also a true story in this aspect that is purely governed by economic profile of Russia. The price of oil in Russia has significantly decreased over the past decade. This is due to the ban on Russian oil exports and the reduction of oil prices all across the globe. The demand for oil from Russia decreased considerably and hence it might be possible, that such an incidence would spur Russia’s motive in amplifying attacks on ISIS camps.
Conclusion
The above appraisal of the news articles, clearly implicated the purpose, with which they are published. As far as articles provide general awareness and remain non-committal, it would increase the credibility of the news. Apart from the credibility, it will not instigate any social or political rumors that may be detrimental to the human race.
Although such actions of nonbias are expected from the news agencies but they do not comply to such bias-free reporting. Such reporting may also carry long-term impact on the historical perspective. News that is distorted or deviated from the main incidence would remain in history. It could activate or sensitize specific groups of society in the future, which might not have been warranted. News articles and media reflections should portray information, and it would be prudent for the viewers to decide regarding any conclusion about an incidence. However, critical appraisal or commentary may be provided by certain designated individuals who are authorized to comment on the cause of such incidences. The objective of the news agency would be to portray the verbatim of such persons exactly the way it has been narrated in front of the media personnel and there should not be any distortions regarding the same. The more a media article remains neutral in its approach in presenting news, the more will be the credibility of news source. Ultimately, what matters are the learning from incidences, for creating a sustainable society, free from cold war and imbibed economical disturbances.
Words count: 2197 words
Works Cited
Lucy Riall, “The Shallow End of History? The Substance and Future of Political Biography,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History (2010) 40.3 (2010): pp 375-397
S. K. Wertz, “Hume and the Historiography of Science,” Journal of the History of Ideas (1993) 54.3(1999): pp. 411–436
Sue Wallace, “Impartiality in the News”, in Fowler-Watt & Allan (eds.),Journalism (2013).
John Soloski, “News Reporting and Professionalism: Some Constraints on Reporting the News”, from Media, Culture & Society 11 (1989); reprinted in Berkowitz, Social Meanings of News (1997), pp. 143–145
Appendix-News articles
Cairo (CNN)A Russian passenger plane crashed early Saturday in Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula, killing all 224 people aboard, officials said.
Russian state media reported that many of the 217 passengers on Kogalymavia Flight 9268 were Russians returning from vacation. The passenger manifest included 17 children but Russian officials said there were 25 aboard. There were seven crew members. Ukrainian Foreign Minister Pavlo Klimkin tweeted that four victims were Ukrainian nationals. The cause of the crash still is unknown, but it is most likely due to a technical failure, and there is no evidence of any terrorist action, Egyptian Airports Co. chief Adel Al-Mahjoob told CNN Arabic.The Airbus A321 had a routine check before flight, showing everything was OK to proceed, Mahjoob said.The so-called black boxes — the flight data recorder and voice data recorder — have been recovered and transported to Cairo for analysis, Egyptian Civil Aviation Minister Hossam Kamel said at a news conference. “There was nothing abnormal before the plane crash,” he said. “It suddenly disappeared from the radar.”Air traffic control recordings did not show any distress calls, Kamel said.The plane departed the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheikh, near the southern tip of the Sinai, on a flight to St. Petersburg, Russia. It vanished from radar 23 minutes into the flight, at 6:20 a.m. local time.Egypt has been battling insurgents in the Sinai aligned with the terrorist group ISIS. Islamists militants in the Sinai linked to ISIS claimed responsibility for the crash, according to an online statement. But Russian Transport Minister Maxim Sokolov said the claim that terrorists brought down the plane by using an anti-aircraft missile “cannot be considered reliable,” according to Russian state news agency RIA Novosti. German air carrier Lufthansa and Air France have decided to reroute aircraft due to fly over the region.”We will keep that measure in place as long as we are not sure of the circumstances and the reasons of the Metrojet crash,” Lufthansa spokeswoman Bettina Rittberger said.
A Russian airliner has crashed in central Sinai killing all 224 people on board, Egyptian officials have said. The Airbus A-321 had just left the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheikh, bound for the Russian city of St Petersburg.The wreckage was found in the Hasana area and bodies removed, along with the plane’s “black box.” An official described a “tragic scene” with bodies of victims still strapped to seats.Egypt’s prime minister said no “irregular” activities were to blame.
Sinai has an active militant network, and on Saturday afternoon, jihadis allied to the so-called Islamic State made a claim on social media that they brought down flight KGL9268.But Russian Transport Minister Maksim Sokolov told Interfax news agency that “such reports cannot be considered true”. No evidence had been seen that indicated the plane was targeted, he said.Egypt’s civilian aviation ministry said the plane had been at an altitude of 9,450m (31,000ft) when it disappeared.Security experts say a plane flying at that altitude would be beyond the range of a shoulder-launched surface-to-air missile (Manpad), which Sinai militants are known to possess.But the German carrier Lufthansa said it would avoid flying over Sinai “as long as the cause for today’s crash has not been clarified”. On Saturday evening, Air France said it was following suit.British Airways and easyJet said their routes were regularly reviewed, but that they had no plans to alter their routes to and from Sharm el-Sheikh.
REUTERS, AFP-JIJI
OCT 31, 2015
ARTICLE HISTORYPRINTSHARECAIRO – A Russian airliner carrying 224 passengers and crew members crashed in Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula on Saturday, the Egyptian prime minister’s office and civil aviation ministry said.
The Airbus A-321, operated by Russian airline Kogalymavia with registration number KGL-9268, was flying at an altitude of 31,000 feet (9,450 meters) from the Sinai coastal resort of Sharm el-Sheikh to St. Petersburg in Russia when it went down in a desolate mountainous area of central Sinai soon after daybreak, the aviation ministry said.
Egyptian military planes spotted the wreckage, and a Cabinet statement said 45 ambulances had been directed to the site to evacuate dead and wounded.
Seventeen children were among the passengers, Russia’s RIA news agency quoted a source in the Russian aviation authority as saying.
Egyptian security sources said there was no indication that the plane had been shot down. Islamist militants are active in parts of the Sinai.
Sergei Isvolsky, a spokesman for the Russian aviation authority, told the Interfax news agency that the plane took off from Sharm el-Sheikh at 6:51 a.m. and ground contact with it was lost with it about 25 minutes later.
CAIRO, Oct. 31, (Xinhua) — A Russian airliner carrying 224 people crashed on Saturday in Egypt’s restive Sinai Peninsula, Egyptian prime minister’s office said.
The plane, carrying 217 passengers along with seven crew members, vanished from radar after taking off from the Red Sea Resort Sharm el-Sheikh on its way to the Russian city of St Petersburg, Egypt’s state-run MENA news agency reported, quoting a statement from the prime minister’s office.
The Airbus A-321, operated by Russian airline Kogalymavia, took off at 5:51 a.m. (0351 GMT) and disappeared from radar 23 minutes after it took off, the report said, adding that most of the passengers are Russian nationals.
Egyptian Foreign Minister Sherif Ismail has ordered the formation of emergency operation room to investigate the crash.
The state-run Ahram online news website reported that the crash was caused by a “technical failure.”
The crash of the Russian plane was due to a “technical failure” and was not shot down, Ayman Al-Mokadem who is heading a committee to monitor the event was quoted by Ahram as saying.
“The pilot sensed a technical failure and reported to the aviation authorities that he wanted to land at the nearest airport,” the report said.
An aviation team is on their way to extract the black boxes to determine the reason for the crash and at least 45 ambulances have been sent to the site, according to a statement of the prime minister’s office.

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