France: President Or Head Of State And Head Of Government
France: President or Head of State and Head of Government
The Frances political system is based on a semipresidencial system. Which supposes a president to deal with all the positions, an executive who is led by a prime minister and a parliament to which the government accounts.
Before explaining, it must be taken into account that the State is divided into four powers that are the following:
- The executive power
- The first Minister
- Legislative power
Let’s start by explaining the first, Executive Branch, Head of State and Head of Government, are two different positions performed by two different people. Head of State (President of the Republic) every five years elections are made to choose the president, once this one selects his prime minister.
Prime Minister or also known as Head of Government, is the minister that the President of the Republic chooses and he must have that the National Assembly approves it, this exercises functions such as decision making about many of the political aspects of the country, such asHealth, economy, and foreign relations. It also has its own decisions without the need for the president to approve them as a legislative initiative, regulatory power and general management of the government.
Then we have a government or also known as the Council of Minisiters, it determines and directs the policy of the Nation, can submit laws to the cameras and declare the state of siege.
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The ministers are appointed by the President at the proposal of the Prime Minister, and must have the support of the majority of the National Assembly. As with the Prime Minister, the President of the Republic cannot dismiss the ministers if they retain the support of the National Assembly.
In the Council of Ministers it is where the government defines decisions about its policy and makes decisions to execute them, each political decision must be registered in a certain legal context of the constitution of the fifth French Republic.
Finally we have the legislative power that ends up being the Parliament is composed of the National Assembly and the Senate.
The National Assembly consists of 577 deputies, which their functions are voting and proposing laws, together with the Senate. Meanwhile the Senate is composed of 348 members who are replaced every six years. One of the Senate’s functions is to approve the laws issued by the Assembly. The functions of the Parliament are to approve the laws, control the government and can dismiss Prime Minister through a motion of censure.
Other institutions provided for in the Constitution are the following: the Constitutional Council, which dictates on the constitutionality of laws and ensures the correct application of electoral processes nationwide.
Other powers that are also from the Legislative Power:
- “The Superior Council of the Magistracy, an organ that helps the President to designate the judges and decide in disciplinary matters, which ensures the independence of the judiciary.
- The High Court of Justice, which would have to judge the President if he were accused of high treason. It also has competence to judge the members of the Cabinet for crimes committed in the exercise of their functions.
- The Economic and Social Council must be consulted on the bills presented by the Government related to economic or social matters. It is composed of two hundred members representing unions, companies, and social organizations.”(Anonymous, 2013)
On economic and financial policy, the State authorizes through the Finance Law, the expenses of the State including the expenses and income of the ministers. For this it is necessary for ministers to break down all the money they will need in the year and then this is passed to public accounts and public function and they decide whether to approve or deny financing.
To end territorially speaking “France consists of 18 administrative regions: 13 metropolitanas (that is, European France) and 5 overseas regions. The 5 overseas regions, as well as San Martín (French territory in the Caribbean) are considered part of the EU (with an ultraperifical region statute). Strasbourg, a French city, is one of the three official headquarters of European institutions. The others are Brussels and Luxembourg ". (European Union, 2020). Currently, Emmanuel Macron is the president of the French Republic since May 14, 2017. Jean Castex is the prime minister since July 3, 2020.
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