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Global warming/ mosquito deaseas do to global

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Effects of global warming on mosquito population
Scientists today have greatly drawn their focus on the effects of global warming. This is so since the United States of America failed to support the Kyoto Protocol, which was written with an aim to prevent the emission of the so-called greenhouse gases. The most likely effect of increasing the earth’s temperature, however, small the increase is, leads to rising in the levels of the ocean waters due to the melting of the ice from the Polar Regions, storm changes, land parching and drought and flood patterns. Climatologists are the most likely people to be heard discussing the same but currently the biologists are now discussing this issue but with a different dimension that shows a certain disastrous effect (Jones, 25).
In the past, not so many years the discussion about global warming and the potential impacts on illnesses like dengue fever and malaria in temperate areas and the tropics has increased. Many scientists indeed find out that global warming leads to the spread of certain vector-borne diseases and malaria. This is explained that global warming disturbs certain equilibrium, and this contributes to new malaria epidemics, encephalitis and yellow and dengue fever. An extremely complex ecology is evident in vector-borne diseases, and this leads to the transmission that eventually leads to the production of diseases (Ramasamy, 39). The sustained malaria outbreaks caused by Anopheles mosquitoes only happen where temperatures exceed 15.

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5 degrees. Also Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that are responsible for diseases like dengue and yellow fever carry and transmit the virus only when the temperatures rarely fall below 10 degrees. It was further discovered that mosquitoes bite more when the air becomes warmer. Heat promotes the development of pathogen, for example at 20 degrees immature Plasmodium falciparum takes about 26 days to mature while at 25 degrees it only takes 13 days to attain its maturity (William, 40).
Since when hottest decade on record began, the outbreaks of most locally transmitted malaria have since increased. This can be led by the decline in mosquito control, but the most likely source of these is global warming that leads to the spread of vector-borne diseases. Andrew Spielman, a professor of tropical public health, discovered that social conditions are likely to have more impact on the spread of vector-borne diseases than climate itself. Trends in immunology that cause the changes in temperature from 1.5 degrees to 6 degrees could increase the spread of malaria in Africa where 90% of the world’s 300-500 million cases are evident annually. In cool highlands that have low temperatures, a slight increase in the temperatures can lead to an increase in malaria transmission. In these areas mosquito development of p. Falciparum and p. Vivax increases when the temperatures are about 18 and 15 degrees respectively (Barker, 67)
The transmission of dengue haemorrhagic fever/ dengue shock virus and also their rates of their development increase as the temperatures rise and these leads to the rise in infectious bites per year Storage of drinking water is led by droughts and these leads to increase in the development sites of these mosquitoes. In developing countries, the burden of global diseases is borne a lot. People living in these areas are likely to be undernourished, and they also lack access to clean water leading to them contracting infectious diseases like malaria (Ranjan, 58). Global warming could also lead to a change in rainfall patterns, and the sea levels will rise meaning some areas will be faced with drought while others will be flooded. This increases the development of mosquitoes leading to malaria disease spreading easily. The same rainfall that leads to the increase in mosquito development could also lead to the washing away of immature mosquitoes thus reducing the spread of malaria. Temperature changes could also have opposing effects depending on whether they occur or not (Armelagos, 12).
Generally when the weather is warm, mosquitoes are likely to feed more and digest blood quicker thus the speed of transmission increases. This leads to the completion of the parasite’s life cycle faster. With the increase in mosquitoes, the areas that had not been colonised before can now be reached. Hot regions, however, have an advantage when the temperatures rise. This is because the temperature may rise to levels which the mosquitoes cannot bear thus they die. Normally mosquitoes survive in temperatures less than 40 degrees, and when there is a rise in this, there is a drop in malaria levels. An increase in the population of malaria vectors does not mean that the disease is likely to increase (Bijaya R. Devkota, 21). Malaria transmission depends on the human population’s immunity and the resistance of the parasite to drugs. Most scientists tend to disagree on the local impacts of the link between the surface climate and malaria transmission. It is, therefore, possible to find out that mosquito’s transmission could be influenced by human policies rather than the human emissions and any other kind of warming of the planet. Research is currently showing that in years to come mosquito-borne diseases will shift from tropical areas to the temperate regions of the world (Bartlett 46).
The climate is just a basic factor in the severity and range of diseases like malaria. But very small changes in climate whether natural or man-made, have had no certain effects on the transmission of diseases like malaria. The health risks of temperature increase depend with a country due to the difference in health structures. Even the developed countries face the risk due to the increased international travels and the documented underreporting. Understanding the link between this diseases and the climate has led to the introduction of preventive measures like public health information (Bijaya R. Devkota, 21). This is where the general public is fed with information on how they can prevent themselves from putting themselves at the risk of contracting vector-borne diseases like malaria. Laboratories are now improving their equipment’s which can help in diagnosing people to know whether they have been infected with these diseases. Vector-borne diseases are likely to be driven by other factors like social, economic status, environmental changes, drug resistance and seasonal weather variation, but variability and changes in climate are the most likely reasons for the spread of these epidemics. The effects of these changes are likely to be shown in different ways that can range from short term to long term epidemics (Bartlett, 36).
However, this does not mean that the other factors to be ignored, rather all of them should be taken into account. The science of health and climate is currently not well developed thus such published data is not readily available. Thus, the vector-borne diseases’ fraction of changes that are attributable to the changes in a climate remains a puzzle. Impacts of climate change on the vector-borne diseases are easily evident, but this cannot be said about the climate changes because the changes are very slow. More to this, it is possible that humans easily adapt to this changes . Thus the impacts are minimized. The health infrastructures of certain affected areas are the one that leads to the variability and changes in the adoption of climate change. Moreover, the efficacy and cost of cure and prevention are very important in the disease management. Some areas have different disease vectors that are sensitive to the changes in climate, and more efforts will be required in such areas to contain the changes that are expected in disease epidemiology (Jones, 93).
Furthermore, climate change is not the same as other epidemiological factors. This is because it can precipitate simultaneously many disease epidemics and other disaster types. Climate change has multiple consequences that are beyond the control of health and touch on all systems that support life. This suggests that climate variability should be among the number one factors that affect human survival and health (Armelagos, 12). The big problem is that these changes in climate are not only found in certain areas of the world rather they are found all over the world, and they occur gradually or rather with small changes that cannot be easily noted thus very difficult to prevent them. Malaria as stated earlier is one of the vector-borne diseases that are caused by temperature changes especially when it gets warm. The human emission that is from industries is one of the major causes of global warming. So if the humans have any hope of reducing the malaria spread, then they should start by controlling the emissions from their industries. Before any form of gas is released into the air, it should be sieved first to ensure that it has no impurities that will constitute to global warming (Barker, 76).

Works Cited:
Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Theory and Practice. Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2014. Print.
Reisen, William K, Daniel Cayan, Mary Tyree, Christopher M. Barker, Bruce Eldridge, and Michael Dettinger. “Impact of Climate Variations on Mosquito Abundance in California.” Journal of Vector Ecology. 33.1 (2008): 89-98. Print.
Armelagos, George J, and Kristin N. Harper. “Emerging Infectious Diseases, Urbanization, and Globalization in the Time of Global Warming.” (2009): 289-311. Print.
Ramasamy, Ranjan, Sinnathamby N. Surendran, Pavilupillai J. Jude, Sangaralingam Dharshini, and Muthuladchumy Vinobaba. “Adaptation of Mosquito Vectors to Salinity and Its Impact on Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission in the South and Southeast Asian Tropics.” (2015). Print.
Yi, Hoonbok, Bijaya R. Devkota, Jae-seung Yu, Ki-Cheol Oh, Jinhong Kim, and Hyun-Jung Kim. “Effects of Global Warming on Mosquitoes & Mosquito-Borne Diseases and the New Strategies for Mosquito Control.” Entomological Research. 44.6 (2014): 215-235. Print.



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