Free Essay SamplesAbout UsContact Us Order Now

How does translanguaging help bilingual students?

0 / 5. 0

Words: 1375

Pages: 5

57

Literature Review: Translanguaging and Bilingual Students
Student’s Name
University Name
Introduction
In this essay, we aim to provide a thorough and complete review of the literature assessed during the course. In the same way, we shall review the main aspects of the papers to provide with a succinct version of the most important aspects of them.
Literature Review
Blackledge, A., & Creese, A. (2010). Translanguaging in the Bilingual Classroom: A Pedagogy for Learning and Teaching? The Modern Language Journal, 94(1), 103-115.
The purpose of this article is to assess and research on the most common understandings of what is a bilingual pedagogy. And how can it be used to approach language teaching and biliteracy in the classrooms. The authors consider that bilingual education should be used when possible. However, the authors do not advocate for a language to be more important than the other, instead they advocate the usage of both languages alongside each other. In this article, the authors take a perspective oriented toward language ecology perspective. Language ecology studies the language diversity within specific socio-political settings. In those settings, the language is used to create, reflect and challenge its limitations. This perspective is useful in the study since the authors intend to reflect on the importance of bilingualism as a way to improve the students’ career. In that sense, bilingual schools build diversity and allows students to have a broader cultural perspective.

Wait! How does translanguaging help bilingual students? paper is just an example!

The method used was to interlock four case studies with two researchers working in two different complementary schools. The studies focused on biliteracy in Gujarati; Turkish; Cantonese, and Mandarin schools. Each case study was observed and recorded. Also, the participants were interviewed. After four weeks of study, two key participants of the study were audio-recorded during lessons; lunch breaks; and during the entrance and exit of the school. On the results of the study, the authors found the participants kept their bilingualism regardless the situation, and it helped them assessing their identities; the accomplishment of their lessons; and their confidence. The students were able to translate easily, and recognize the simultaneity of their language usage as a way to keep their workflow, either in the classroom or their breaks.
Canagarajah, S. (2011). Codemeshing in Academic Writing: Identifying Teachable Strategies of Translanguaging. The Modern Language Journal, 95(3). Canagarajah study is intended to show how translanguaging strategies can be used in a classroom. He assumes that it is possible to learn from students’ translanguaging strategies, while they develop their fluency and proficiency through dialogical pedagogy. Using classroom ethnography, the article describes the experiences of an undergraduate Saudi Arabian student who uses code-meshing in her essays. Canagarajah numbers four different strategies used by the student to contextualize her essays. With the study, the author aimed to show how the feedback of the instructor and peers can help students question their choices, think critically, and raise their metacognitive awareness. However, how can the teachers develop contexts on which the intuitive capacities of translanguaging students can be fully integrated into the educational system? That is another of the Canagarajah’s intentions. The student observed by the author mixed French, and Arabic with English to create a more diverse piece, including voices and symbols that cannot be found in English. However, the student considers that it is very likely that her translanguaging capabilities would not be as appreciated as they are in the classroom. Nevertheless, in a world where diversity is more and more appreciated, she stands a chance.
Canagarajah, S. (2011). Translanguaging in the classroom: Emerging issues for research and pedagogy. Applied Linguistics Review, 1-28. Canagarajah attempts to give a summary of how translanguaging can be applied in different disciplines, either academic or social. In the same light, he intends to raise critical questions regarding the theory, and practice of a pedagogy that includes translanguaging practices. In the same way, the author’s findings cover the individualistic focus on translanguaging, and language competencies, and how further research should explore translanguaging in other places different from conversation. Specifically, what Canagarajah aims to do is offer orientations regarding effective translanguaging practices. To complete his research, the author takes a sample of some students and their writing. The author asked them to complete an assignment regarding her personal lives and found that many of the students responded using translanguaging practices that reflected their cultural backgrounds. Canagarajah concludes by saying that despite translanguaging is a practice that encourages the cultural background and differences of the learner, it should not be used in all the conventions, and in any register. In that light, to the author, a person can include its own codes in the written registry, without hindering the language.
Hornberger N. & Link H. (2012) Translanguaging and transnational literacies in multilingual classrooms: a biliteracy lens, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15:3, 261-278
In this article, the authors intend to give a perspective on the “No Child Left Behind” policy, and the way it affects the bilingual education in the classrooms. However, in a context where standardized tests dominate the curriculum, it is hard to assess the importance of the first language of those learners that are not native in English. The school standards confirm that the literacy in any first language different than English is discouraged, and translanguaging practices are undervalued. Using a sociolinguistic perspective, and ethnographic data the authors intend to argue for a biliterate education that welcome the differences and the possible transnational literacies among the students. In that way, the authors argue that these innovative ways to see education can be exploited as a way to create new spaces for the students to thrive. At the same time that their differences and values are recognized and understood.
In this study, the authors present us with three different scenarios on how biliteracy can create new opportunities in the classrooms and facilitate the interactions and success of the students. The scenarios are created in a way that readers can assess the importance of biliteracy in children, and the way it affects their development, and their academic life. In this article, the authors rely in the study did by Blackledge and Creese (2012) to explain the importance of biliteracy in the classrooms. The authors conclude by saying that the use of biliteracy criteria in the classrooms could be used as a way to enrich the learning process for the whole classroom, as the differences are incorporated instead of eradicated.
Langman, J. (2014). Translanguaging, identity, and learning: Science teachers as engaged language planners. Lang Policy Language Policy, 183-200.
Today’s schools feature more diverse backgrounds, and since the state educational boards pressured to improve tests scores to secure budgets, the teachers often forget the important role that diversity plays in the classroom. Besides, if teachers with little knowledge of second language learning become language planners, the situation would not improve. Using data from classroom activities, and interviews with teachers and school personnel, the author attempts to show how translanguaging and culture work in classrooms. The study is composed of three teachers with various degrees of experience working with English Learners. The three teachers are monolingual but consider that working in diverse classrooms report more satisfaction that those with a less diverse population. To Langman, it is important that the students and teachers together use their resources, either cultural or linguistic to establish a relation that improves learning. In the same way, the author advises the teacher to engage in a conscious dialog to build educational achievement, and agency.
Velasco P. & García O. (2014) Translanguaging and the Writing of Bilingual Learners, Bilingual Research Journal: The Journal of the National Association for Bilingual Education, 37:1, 6-23
This article goes on the subject of translanguaging as a way to develop academic writing skills in bilingual students. To do so, the article explores the development of biliteracy specifically aimed to writing skills. It analyzes five pieces of writing written by biliterate students and analyzes how translanguaging is used, and the effect it has in writing and the author’s voice. The purpose of the study is to show translanguaging as a self-regulating mechanism where students can engage, rather than a pedagogical resource. Nevertheless, since to be able to write in a constructed academic language is the goal of many schools, it might be hard for schools to allow it. However, if schools allow the development of a translanguaging approach, it could have a greater educational potential. Interestingly, the authors use the study done by Canagarajah (2011) to support part of their claim regarding code-meshing in schools.
The article presents a case study on which writing samples of 4th-grade students of Spanish-English and Korean-English bilingual education. The texts reveal the way on which translanguaging is used, mixing two different languages, creating a bilingual world that has its own complexities, and there is no threat of to the student’s cultural identity, and the learning process is enriched by both cultural experiences.
Templates
Reference Blackledge, A., & Creese, A. (2010). Translanguaging in the Bilingual Classroom: A Pedagogy for Learning and Teaching? The Modern Language Journal, 94(1), 103-115.
Theory Used EcolinguisticsPurpose/ Hypotheses/ Questions Using Translanguaging as a bilingual pedagogy to achieve heteroglossia among the students instead of a situation of diglossiaSample/ Participants Between 200 to 350 students, however, the research focused on only 2 of them
Methods/ Measures Four interlocking case studies with 2 researchers working in two complementary schools in four communities. The students assessed were audio recorded in all the aspects of their academic life
Main Findings The students kept their bilingualism regardless of the situation, and it helped them assessing their own unique cultural identity.
Comments The way this study considers that students should achieve heteroglossia, instead of diglossia, separating both languages is, in our eyes, the best way to achieve a multicultural education.
Reference Canagarajah, S. (2011). Codemeshing in Academic Writing: Identifying Teachable Strategies of Translanguaging. The Modern Language Journal, 95(3).
Theory Used Sociolinguistics and Ethnography
Purpose/ Hypotheses/ Questions The possibility of learning from students’ translanguaging strategies, while they develop their fluency and proficiency through dialogical pedagogy.
Sample/ Participants 1 Participant: A Saudi Arabian student who uses code-meshing in her undergraduate essays
Methods/ Measures Differentiation of the strategies used by the participant.
Main Findings The author showed how feedback of the instructor and peers can help students question their choices, think critically, and raise their metacognitive awareness. In the same way, he questioned the possibilities of the translanguaging students to adapt to the society.
Comments This study was a great reflection on how a translanguaging person might not find its place in our society, having to code-switch or live in diglossia.
Reference Canagarajah, S. (2011). Translanguaging in the classroom: Emerging issues for research and pedagogy. Applied Linguistics Review, 1-28.
Theory Used Sociolinguistics
Purpose/ Hypotheses/ Questions How translanguaging can be applied in different disciplines, either academic or social.
Sample/ Participants A classroom of students with a diverse cultural background composed by a half of Anglo-American students and international students.
Methods/ Measures None Identified
Main Findings Translanguaging encourages cultural backgrounds, and differences. It should not be used in all the conventions, and in any register.
Comments The idea of translanguaging as a way to improve understanding through the differences can be used thoroughly in the classroom. However, as the author says, it should be a convention on where to use it
Reference Langman, J. (2014). Translanguaging, identity, and learning: Science teachers as engaged language planners. Lang Policy Language Policy, 183-200.
Theory Used Sociolinguistics
Purpose/ Hypotheses/ Questions Using data from classroom activities, and interviews with teachers and school personnel, the author attempts to show how translanguaging and culture work in classrooms.
Sample/ Participants Students from the classes where the three teachers with a positive approach to translanguaging and cultural education study
Methods/ Measures None Identified
Main Findings To establish a relation that improves learning. In the same way, the author advises teacher to engage in a conscious dialog to build educational achievement, and agency
Comments Translanguaging to build educational achievement, and cultural strength
Reference Hornberger N. & Link H. (2012) Translanguaging and transnational literacies in multilingual classrooms: a biliteracy lens, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15:3, 261-278
Program or Course Name None Identified
Purpose/ Objectives Giving a perspective on the “No Child Left Behind” policy, and the way it affects the bilingual education in the classrooms.
Participants Three students with different cultural backgrounds.
Overview Description The school standards confirm that the literacy in any first language different than English is discouraged, and translanguaging practices are undervalued. Using a sociolinguistic perspective, and ethnographic data the authors intend to argue for a biliterate education that welcome the differences and the possible transnational literacies among the students
What Can We Learn? Assessing how translanguaging is shaping today’s educational world
Understand the differences between students coming from different cultures
How bilingual education affects the classrooms
Reference Velasco P. & García O. (2014) Translanguaging and the Writing of Bilingual Learners, Bilingual Research Journal: The Journal of the National Association for Bilingual Education, 37:1, 6-23
Theory Used EcolinguisticsPurpose/ Hypotheses/ Questions the article explores the development of biliteracy specifically aimed to writing skills. It analyzes five pieces of writing written by biliterate students and analyzes how translanguaging is used, and the effect it has in writing and the author’s voice.
Sample/ Participants 5 4th Grade students and their pieces of writing in Spanish-English and Korean-English bilingual schools
Methods/ Measures Multilingual text selections
Activation of knowledge from inside and outside the text
Multilingual Code-Meshing
Oral Code-Meshing
Written Code-Meshing
Main Findings Translanguaging as a self-regulating mechanism where students can engage, rather than a pedagogical resource.
The value of translanguaging as a source of diversity
Comments The way children understand and use code-meshing is quite interesting, as they merge two completely different discourses into one, creating a gapless unity that show both cultures, and offers a complete vision of the way two different languages can share a space.

Get quality help now

Top Writer

Richard Phelps

5,0 (415 reviews)

Recent reviews about this Writer

If you’re not sure whether you want to order your paper from this company, just listen to me. Their writing is amazing! No time to doubt, just do it, and you’ll never regret it.

View profile

Related Essays

Play Therapy

Pages: 1

(275 words)

Evaluation

Pages: 1

(275 words)

Summaries of Hamlet Critiques

Pages: 1

(550 words)

Drug Abuse Challenge

Pages: 1

(275 words)

Impact of Scholarships

Pages: 1

(275 words)