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Prosocial Behavior And Their Relationship With Parenting Patterns

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Prosocial behavior and their relationship with parenting patterns

Introduction

Establishing the relationship between pro -social behavior and parenting patterns is an arduous topic for psychological research. The reason for this complexity can be answered by the difficulty of both constructs, together with the multitude of associated concepts. Clark et al. (2015) explain that, the research that could cover the relationship between the social behavior of young people and parenting styles is scarce.

In this study, an exhaustive review of articles published in psychology and related areas, indexed in electronic databases was carried out.

The publications reviewed were the following: Journal of Child and Family Studies, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, The Journal of Genetic Psychology, Psych Journal, International Journal of Psychology, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Social Psychology: McGraw-Hill, Frontiers In psychology, Child Development, psychological reports, Aggressive Behavior, Child Psychiatry & Human Development, Social Development, Developmental Psychology, Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Brain and Behavior, Journal of Aggressive, Maltreatment & Trauma.

The aforementioned articles were reviewed in February 2020. The following descriptors were used: involvement of parents, social reasoning, social behavior, parental styles and parenting patterns. For the review, review articles and empirical articles were included, as well as books that addressed these terms.

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Once read, they were categorized, allowing to address and deepen each. 8 aspects for analysis were built: definitions, categories, methodology used, relationships between both concepts, relationship with other variables, study conclusions, limitations and recommendations.

A total of 37 articles were reviewed in the analysis. Paying special attention to the objective of this work (establishing the relationship of parenting patterns on social behavior), the following questions were developed for the study: What definitions of pro -social behavior and parental patterns describe the researchers?, What categories do references use to branch pro -social behavior and parenting patterns?, What methodology was used to obtain the results?, What was the relationship established between the two variables?, What other variables were related to those of this study? What conclusions did researchers arrive?, What were the limitations presented by the researchers? And were the recommendations of the researchers? These questions allow to identify relevant aspects for the theoretical framework of this article.

They were able to find a total of 37 articles, mainly in English. The detail review allowed them to reduce them to 17 complete texts. Based on the eight categories raised for this study, they highlighted: A.) Definitions of pro -social behavior and parenting patterns, B.) Categories of social behavior and parenting patterns, C.) Methodology used to obtain the results, D.) established relationship between parenting and social behavior patterns, and.) variables that relate to parenting and pro -behavior patterns, f.) Research conclusions, G.) Limitations of investigations and H.) Recommendations of researchers.

Developing

Pro social behaviors are efforts to satisfy the need for support from another person, they are characterized by being volunteers, adopted to take care and comfort others (even, Blum, Abal, Lozzia & Horacio, 2014).

Pro social, altruistic and help behaviors are sometimes used as synonyms, however, each one refers to a different process (Morales, Moya, Gaviria & Cuadrado, 2007).

On the other hand (Morales et al., 2007) states that altruism is the opposite idea of ​​selfishness, which has additional components such as selfless attention to the care of the welfare of others.

In the literature consulted, more strict and lax definitions of social behavior are obtained. This investigation is considered a strict definition that involves a large number of requirements for a behavior to be of this type, together with an explanation of how this behavior develops; Such is the case of the definition of (Xiao, Spinrad & Carter, 2018), which includes the social behavior as a progression of support, help and affiliation responses, together with the training and maintenance of interpersonal relationships, beginning to develop in childhood and strengthening. During adolescence.

In contrast, lax definitions are simpler and contemplate few aspects so that a behavior can be classified as a social pro. This is how the definition of a behavior arises that mainly aims to benefit others (Emagnaw and Hong, 2018), (Pastorelli et al., 2015) and (Clark, Dahlen & Nicholson, 2015). This definition can consider ambiguous, because it takes as synonyms the pro -social behavior and the behavior of help, which, according to (Morales et al., 2007), is an action that improves the well -being of another person, described by causality, temporality and mediating factors (even et al., 2014).

Morales et al. (2007), determines that the death of Kitty Genovese (woman attacked by a rapist with a knife when she returned to her apartment in New York, at 3 in the morning) was the time when the interest in the study of the aid behavior , then entitled Pro Social Behavior.

In a recent study (Gryczkowski, Jordan & Mercer, 2017) determined that the most important dimensions of pro -social behavior are cooperation, affirmation, responsibility, empathy and self-control.

conclusion

Several social behavior categorizations have been developed. The oldest that are still valid (González, 2000; Olivar, 1998) are characterized by deepening in detail the differences between the numerous pro -social behaviors. Olivar (1998), distinguishes between: physical help, physical service, giving, verbal help, verbal consolation, confirmation and positive valuation of the other, deep listening, empathy, solidarity, positive presence and unity. Likewise, González (2000), also proposed a division in pro -social behavior, by contrasting different types of pro social behaviors. We present below the division most used so far, since it is also a literature review.

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