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Scientific Investigation

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Role of Crime Scene Processing and Forensic Analysis in Solving a Case.
Crime scene processing is the act of processing the crime scene in a field. Processing mainly refers to the entire task of sketching, photographing, examining and the use of field techniques to evaluate, identify, document ,process and collect testimonial, physical and fingerprint evidence. Forensic Analysis, on the other hand, is the use of documented and controlled investigative techniques to collect, identify and preserve digital information.
Crime scene processing and forensic analysis are used hand in hand in solving cases. There are many samples that are collected at a crime scene, such include a wide variety of physical evidence that can be as small as a single strand of hair and can also be in the form of solid, liquid or gas. The biological evidence includes blood, body fluids, other tissues and also hair. At the crime scene, the physical evidence may be in four different forms, such include, transient evidence, this is the evidence that is typically temporary such as temperature, odor or indentations.
In addition, there is the pattern evidence, which is solely produced by direct contact between an individual and a particular object, such include, glass fracture, material damage or even blood spatter. There is also conditional evidence that is produced by a certain effect, it entails cases such as types of wounds, color of smoke at a fire, if lights are on or off and also if the radio is on or off.

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In other circumstances, there may also be Transfer evidence such as drugs at the scene of crime, chemicals, tool mark evidence and also body fluids.
Other samples collected are Latent print evidence such as palm prints, foot prints, and finger prints. The type of evidence that will be collected will vary with the type of crime. To ensure that the evidence has not been destroyed investigators collect trace materials and also take photographs and they will also collect low levels of DNA evidence.
DNA evidence is essential in solving crimes. DNA or Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid has been a useful tool in identification of criminals in cases where biological evidence exists. In twenty years after the development of DNA, or Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid Ribose Nucleic Acid fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects and the identification of victims of crimes, accidents and disasters, driving the development of innovative methods in molecular genetics, statistics and the use of massive intelligence databases thus it’s a useful tool in the identification of criminals in cases where biological evidence exists (Jobling 751). Thus; DNA technology is vital in ensuring fairness and accuracy in criminal justice systems.
In the scene of crime, common types of evidence such as body fluids are associated with crimes of violence. Blood collected can be determined if it is of human or animal and in addition to this, ABO blood type and DNA profile can be investigated. Moreover, the serological examination can be used to determine the presence or the absence of phosphates acid. Hair is found in cases that involve personal contact. Such may include a sexual assault, a homicide or even a vehicle accident. Finger prints are one of the most commonly used evidence at a crime scene. All the objects were treated as possible source of the fingerprints. The detectives thus wear cotton gloves when handling the latent prints.
The professionals that are responsible for recognition, collection and preservation of evidence or the crime scene investigation team, they mainly consists of evidence collection personnel, who gather specific evidence such as DNA trace evidence and latent prints, crime scene photographers, certified crime scene investigators, certified crime scene analyst, certified crime scene reconstructionists and certified senior crime scene analyst.
The crime scene investigation is conducted systematically so as to ensure success in prosecuting a case. The first step in the investigation is locating the focal point of the scene and an area that is sizeable to contain all the relevant physical evidence that are present. Thus, potential safety and health hazard is established during the initial approach because biohazards, chemical hazard and also weapons could be awaiting the responders. The second step in a crime scene investigation is establishing security.
According to the Locard’s exchange principle, every single person who enters and then exits a crime scene will either add or subtract materials from that crime scene. Thus, it’s essential first to secure the area; this involves the use of yellow crime scene tape to cordon off an area.
The third major step involves planning, coordinating and also communicating. This involves first knowing the type of crime that under investigation. Additional forensic resources are used in this situation. In addition to this, conducting an initial or a primary survey is mainly to prioritize the evidence. Thus, the crime scene is documented so as to record conditions like smells present in the area, position of movable furniture and also the temperature of that particular scene. In addition to this the crime scene team then conducts a thorough investigation which includes detailed documentation with the use of video and digital cameras.
A secondary survey then follows and it mainly entails a review and ensuring the scene has been thoroughly searched. After the secondary survey the evidence is collected and preserved and an inventory log is created. The description that has been recorded in the log in many cases will match with the photo of evidence taken at that scene and then the description is included.
The tests that have been collected at the crime scene are then sent to a forensic laboratory or an outside analyst for examination. To identify the most valuable evidence, the crime scene personnel will conduct screening tests also referred to as presumptive tests so as to determine if the substance is a stain, a drug or a toxin. The presumptive tests will be essential in reducing the quantity of the evidence that has been submitted to the lab.
An in-depth analysis of the movie Seven (1995) on crime scene investigation clearly shows the importance and the role of crime scene processing and forensic analysis in solving a case, this is because it explains how detector Somerset; the homicide specialist in collaboration with Mills how they investigate the death of a fat man. Somerset investigates death after death, also at the crime scene there are words that are scrawled on the wall behind the refrigerator where the word “Gluttony” is written. After this murder within a couple of days later, Mills and Somerset realize that they are dealing with a serial killer. However, Somerset has just a week to retire from work but has one last case that has to be handled in collaboration with David Mills who is the detective to replace him. However, it can be seen that Somerset is unwilling to take the case because he has realized that there will be five more murders. In one scene, Somerset wants to investigate on what the killer considers as moral statements. The killer, as Detective Somerset has found out has library cards, but these are just, but a means to lure the police into thinking that he gets the ideas from the library that is actually not the case.
Thus, it can be seen that the use of crime scene processing in solving a case is empirically essential if the scene of the crime is controlled by the investigators at hand so that all the necessary information that are captured.
Works Cited
Jobling, Mark A., and Peter Gill. “Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis.” Nature
Reviews Genetics 5.10 (2004): 739-751.

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