The Roman Empire
The Roman Empire
1 (A) Octavius was a man of the people. During his reign, there were severe challenges due to the cold war. People fought each other through propaganda and even through hate speech. Hatred bestowed the whole of Rome. However, Octavius worked on restoring people’s love and dignity. As a result, he received various titles. First, Augustus was given by the senate in recognition of his recommendable services and dignity to the senate. Second, he was given a title “Imperium Proconsulare” in recognition of his proconsul powers. Also due to tribunician powers, he was given a title “tribunicia potestas.” He was also made pontifex maximus and hence being given a title “Pater patriae.” Octavius was also given the title of “Imperator” as the command of the army. However, he chose the title of “Princeps Civitatis” as the first citizen of the state. He wanted people to know him as a citizen who has trust among people rather than a person governing people due to his powerful name.
B. Augustus worked hard to change the senate and restore it to its normal state like in the time of Sulla or even Julius Ceaser. He reduced the number of members and executives in the senate from 900 to 600 members. He also changed it to be a form of the advisory department that helped in the running of the empire.
2 (A) On the other hand, he changed the army. He developed a team of nine thousand men and named it “praetorian guard.” Their forces were spread outside Rome.
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They were given authorities to protect and guard people in different points beyond Rome territory. Moreover, the emperor knew that Augustus powers were supported by majority people even the military. As a result, he was aware that people needed to live in peace. He never wanted to make the military a burden to the society.
B. In addition, Augustus changed the administration of the city of Rome. He organized new officers to take control of the city. Moreover, he established all police officer to be under the charge of the chief. It was for the purpose of easing management of the city. He wanted to ensure each and every person knows who and where to report issues and grievances. It was a way of reducing the violence that had become rampart in the whole of Rome. In the distribution of grains, he put a regular officer in charge. He was to be responsible for all issues relating its transportation.
3 (A) Augustus also impacted several departments and projects. For instance, he encouraged architecture. It is said that he found Rome on bricks and left it of marble. He went on restoring all the buildings that had fallen into decay. Many buildings were also constructed and hence changing the face of Rome. For instance, massive Pantheon; temple of all gods was built at the time of Augustus. Today, it has been preserved as one of the best monumental building in the whole of Rome. Other popular buildings that Augustus built include the great imperial palace on the hill of the palatine.
B. He also changed the face of literature in the whole of Rome. For instance, he made the marble temples the works of literature. At the time Vergil’s “Aeneid,” one of the best poems in the world was written. After that, the “odes” of Horace were composed. Moreover, the elegies of Tibullus, Ovid and even Propertius were written. Livy, who was among the greatest writers of the time, indicated the pictures of how Rome was constructed and made a unique city by Augustus.
C. In addition, Augustus reformed religion. He wanted to restore people by imposing them with good morals. The old religion was already spoilt and hence people were living in misery. By restoring old temples, he wanted to ensure ancient gods were worshiped. Juno, one of the ancient gods was restored and people started worshiping it again. Augustus also tried to purify the city by discouraging the worship of foreign deities whose worship was considered to be corrupt. He also targeted restoring the Old Roman religion which will ensure people turn to their simple life as well as reviving their old morality.
4 (A) Augustus screamed “Quintilius Varus, give me back my legions!” after hearing news about the defeat of his people in war. He screamed due to pain as he played the biggest role in uniting and modifying the legions. In addition, the eagle was a term that was used in the whole of Rome; it was symbolic.
B. First legionary standard was recovered by Germanicus in 14 CE
Second legionary standard was recovered by Germanicus in 16 CE
Third legionary standard (military eagle) was recovered by Publius Gabinius in 41 CE.
5 (A) Claudius entered the Roman Empire as a consultant in AD 37. His reign was a mixture of failures and successes. For instance, he helped Rome to conquer some of its enemies. Thereafter, he was mistreated by all people because they thought he was physically handicapped. He suffered embarrassment from his own nephew, Caligula. After, Caligula was assassinated, he won the senate and he was placed on the throne. He had all the required characteristics of becoming the king. He was the first Roman Empire to be appointed by the army but not the senate. First, when he went to the throne, he changed everything. He destroyed criminal records, abolished treason trials, destroyed Caligula staff like the infamous stock of poisonous. He also strengthened the army and made it ready for the fight of each and every enemy.
B. In AD 43, he conquered the Britain troops.
6. First, Nero wanted to trap Agrippina into an accident. As a result, the collapsed ship ends up killing Agrippina’s maid while she manages to swim to the shores. Second, when Nero had that Agrippina had survived he sends Anicetus with a troop of armed men in her villa where they killed her in cold blood.
7. Vespasian commanded the campaign against Jews. Their property was destroyed and temples broken down. Due to high commotions and chaos in the land, Vespasian passed his powers to his son Titus who later became the Emperor of Rome. Through him the Jews continued to suffer, he commanded the killing of the Jews and looting of their property from their temple.
8. Coliseum got its name Flavian Amphitheatre since it was constructed during the Flavian dynasty. Its construction also began in 72 AD under Vespasian emperor. Also, it took only 9 years to build. No other stadium of the same size has been constructed within the duration.
9 (A) Marcus Aurelius faced various problems like the attack by the Germans. Also, he experienced rebellions in northern Egypt and Italy. In his reign, there was also plague outburst. In most cases, he used the mind to solve problems rather than violence.
B. The author argues Marcus didn’t take responsibility for his actions. Though the German, Italians and Egyptians attacked the state, he considered them as children of God rather than taking the initiative of fighting them back.
10 (A) Commodus found some things valueless in his life. For instance, he changed the calendar and made it according to his own thought. Popularity was vanity to him. He would fight in the ring like a gladiator.
B. The lifestyle of Commodus was contradicting with people’s expectation and hence making him assassinated in CE 192.
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