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Two Management Theories: Compare and Contrast

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Two Management Theories
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Institution

Two Management Theories
The concept of management differs across the globe. Theories are formed to elaborate on the managerial strategies to use. Management principles are expressed from different histories and contexts. They have positive and negative effects on management practice. The service industry impacts some challenges on its leaders (Nolan & Johnson, 2011). The needs of employees and employers have become complex. Students enter the management field lacking the necessary leadership skills. The focus is now on having a competent workforce. This move has led to the challenge of lacking adequate supervision, leading to increased rate of turnover (Nolan & Johnson, 2011). There are two types of management theories considered. Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X and Y have similarities and differences in their application, making them comparable to each other and necessary in the administration world.
They focus on leadership, human management, and motivation. They describe the motivation strategies that management employs. Organizational Behavior, Human Resource Management, and Organizational Development are key features discussed according to McGregor (1960) who developed and found these theories to be contrastable.
Theory X
It is developed to emphasize on strict supervision, offer rewards and appropriate action for any undesired activity. It believes workers do not like their jobs and lack adequate motivation to perform their work.

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Rules and instructions are emphasized so as to meet organizational goals. There is the threat of firing and strict supervision to ensure workers deliver. It makes employees experience a strict atmosphere. It is friendly when management offer rewards to the performing employees. Theory X is applicable where workers are not consistently motivated, and promotion is rarely carried out or impossible (Barkema, Chen, George, Luo, & Tsui, 2015). Employee’s ability is not fully exploited since it discourages creativity. Many fields are not dominated by social workers to focus on leadership development. It is outcome oriented but discourages innovation.
Theory Y
It focuses on job satisfaction and motivation. Theory Y allow workers to employ creativity in their operations. It believes that a conducive working atmosphere will inspire every employee to deliver since most people perform well. The worker is an important asset of the company, hence treated with much dignity and respect. Workers exercise some authority; they can solve problems meaningfully. Theory Y believes employees can perform any physical or mental work provided in the company. Workers are treated as responsible and mature people, democratic leadership, based on self-supervision and control is applied. External control is placed at the most minimum level.
Management holds themselves and employees accountable for every action. The management is also committed to improving the behavioral quality and trait in employees (Nolan & Johnson, 2011). Leadership Exercise collaboration, innovation, self-reflection and accountability (Barkema, Chen, George, Luo, & Tsui, 2015). Theory Y provides for leadership that embrace client needs, in that they respect all the human needs.
Similarities
Theory X and Y are applied in common environment like in the military. Theory X enforces order and hierarchical move as Y enhances greater involvement by everyone in the system, suggesting a decentralized system. They both acknowledge that leaders develop a different relationship with subordinates. The relationship depends on how each how each subordinate delivers. Workers acquire self-esteem in both theories, mainly brought by the supervision. Workers are viewed as significant assets in their duties, and that’s the reason for supervision. This improves their dignity and morale.
Theory X and Y instills management styles in an organization (McGregor, 1960). These styles vary according to the relationship between management and employees. Both theories emphasize this quality. Both theories aid each other in the development of this style; X and Y approach are applied together. X will help Y to develop some extent of management style, same to Y.
Importance
Theory X and Y improve human motivation. The levels of both workers and managers reveal the motivational need. X and Y help both employees and employers to realize the need for motivation, leading to the involvement of management in employee inspiration. These theories improve individual’s desire to achieve, which increases the performance of both management and employees in the organization. The institute becomes result oriented as there is a need for good results.
Theories X and Y guide in the proper use of authority and power by the management. They instill the need to be influential in a constructive manner, hence challenging the goals set. These theories exert affiliation in a person and the need to have friendly relationships. This improves interaction between people and teamwork (Fang, Qureshi, & Janssen, 2015). The organizations coordination and cooperation between managers and employees is greatly improved and the rate of employee turnover lowered.
Conclusion
Theories X and Y are not different or opposite sides but are different in their way of approach. The combination of both two theories is encouraged to achieve the desired production. These models are applicable together based on the current condition or prevailing circumstances. These theories are diversely used in most of the sectors in the economy. There is a need to have advancement in these theories, so as to counter the day to day organizational changes experienced.

Reference
Barkema, H. G., Chen, X. P., George, G., Luo, Y., & Tsui, A. S. (2015). West meets East: New concepts and theories. Academy of Management Journal, 58(2), 460-479.
Fang, Y., Qureshi, I., & Janssen, O. (2015). Understanding employee innovative behavior: Integrating the social network and leader–member exchange perspectives. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(3), 403-420.
McGregor, D. (1960). Theory X and theory Y. Organization theory, 358-374.Wang, X. H. F.
Nolan, T., & Johnson, K. (2011). The Essential Handbook for Human Service Leaders. Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear Publishing. ISBN-13: 9781457501388 

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