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Anxious (Review of Chap 3,4 and 5)

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Major points in the selected chapters and how this relates to the concept of intervening variables and operational definitions
Introduction
Intervention variables are hypothetical elements or circumstances that are used to explain the existing relationships between variables that are observed. The variables include dependent and independent variables that are synonymous with empirical studies (Tolman 2). The variable is interrelated with operational definitions of key objective constructs. The relationship is evident given that it aids understanding of the prevailing relationship between the dependent and independent variables especially when the variables appear to have the definite connection(Tolman 2). The two variables are studied through operational definitions that have no parting existence. This paper discusses the key points and information provided in the three different chapters of designated articles. It also details the connection between the message in the chapters and the concept of intervening variables.
Chapter 3
Chapter three of Ralph Waldo’s article is titled life is dangerous. The chapter affirms the notion that there is a danger as soon as there is life. Waldo narrates a story that he was told by an Australian friend about the nature of life. The friend told him “time for a kangaroo’s breakfast-a quick pee and look around” (Ralph 53). The assertion and that of Ralph Waldo about life is dangerous to resonate with the intervening variable that asserts the symbiotic aspect of life.

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They depict that there is a strong relationship between the things that are found in the world. According to Ralph, the friend narrated how Kangaroos are surviving. He imagined that the animals lived among predators in which they should have first looked around keenly. Their proximity to the predators means that their lives are always in danger of attack anytime.
The main points and viewpoints that are contained in the chapter that the life is a struggle from moment to moment and year by year. There is no definite situation in life as things keep on changing (Ralph 53). Everything under the sun also has limited power to choose safer places to be as there are predators everywhere just as evident in Kangaroos life. Ralph pointed out that in life, one man’s food is another’s poison a fact that resonates with the intervening variable. It shows that there is an exclusive relationship between living things and non-living things. Nothing can stand on its own in the world, especially in the modern day.
Ideally, living things are predators to each other hence there is no safer place. The living things depend on each other for food and survival in both in the short and long run. Life is not static, and every predator preys on the opponents through a “hide and seeks” game.
Chapter 4
J Tolkien focused on the defensive brain in the fourth chapter of his book. The author narrated how going out of the door is dangerous including how it exposes individuals to predators. He noted that all living things are made up cells of diverse nature. Some are similar while some consist of single cells or bacteria that depend on each other. Tolkien (82), noted that one cell can provide what life requires that although may be sufficient, can limit what the organism can perform on the other hand. The chapter depicts the life of animals with specific reference to cows that have many cells that are organized into systems. The cells perform different functions as evident in mammals that use them to perform digestion, respiration, reproductive and circulation of blood among other functions. The narration shows how body cells contribute in facilitating the functionality of body parts of the living things.
The key points in the chapter are that cells whether single or many works steadfastly in fostering the effective functionality of the body. The cells though complex to understand how they work provides the body with necessary oxygen, energy, facilitate blood circulation, and digestion in the body (Tolkien 83). It also details how the brain functions with two particular cells that are called Neurons and glial cells. The cells perform dependent functions as they communicate to aid the release of chemicals that affect other cells that are nearby.
The narration is connected to the intervening variable and operational definition concept that promotes the understanding on the relationship between independent and dependent variables. This is depicted as body cells are highly interrelated based on their functions. The aspect is evident between the two brain cells that communicate to release chemicals that destroy the unwanted cells nearby.
Chapter 5
Chapter five of Niko Tinbergen’s article provides credible information titled “have we inherited emotional states of mind from animal ancestors”. The key point communicated in the article is that anger, hunger, fear and joy among other aspects impact our emotions (Tinbergen 114). The article also affirms that the human attributes or character traits were inherited from the animal ancestors. The view dates back to the Plato time where it was viewed that the human emotions that are characterized with wild impulses had only been influenced by the voice of reason. He indicated that emotional characters such as fear were passed on through neural circuits that are achieved by encoding systems.
He covered Darwin’s theory on the human primitive character in the article. Charles Darwin holds that primitive human emotions were actually inherited in the year 1872 from animal ancestors(Tinbergen 114). Darwin’s theory is based on the reasoning that there was a systematic process of human development and a connection between animal psychological responses and emotions.
The information in the chapter is connected to the intervening variable principle given that the main focus is on the relationship between circumstances and living things in shaping certain characters as evident in the inheritance aspect of primitive human relations.
Works Cited
Emerson, Ralph. Life is Dangerous: As Soon as there is Life there is Danger: n.d.
Tolkien, J.R. The Defensive Brain. n.d.
Tolman, Charles W. Positivism in Psychology: Historical and Contemporary Problems. New York, NY: Springer New York, 1992. Print.
Tinbergen, Niko. Have we Inherited Emotional States of Mind from Our Animal Ancestors. n.d.

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