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DiscussionProtective Factors for Dementia

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Memory is not tangible but is a collection of different information then stored in one place, and is stored in the hippocampus to be retrieved later. There are two types of memories: short-term memory whereby information is stored for seconds to about a minute, for example, remembering a person’s contact number. And long-term memory, where information is stored for a long period of time and can be retrieved anytime but do not rely on any form of activity (Warrington et al. 2017). Alzheimer is a condition that affects the memory, both short-term and long-term causing memory loss, while memory consolidation is the method where short-term memories are converted into long-term memories where information is stored for a long time and can be retrieved.
Consolidating takes place when, synapses-connection on cells that enable the exchange of information, will require formation of new RNA together with proteins within the hippocampus while preventing protein formation, however, will stop new-long term memories from being formed within the hippocampal neurons, leading to impaired consolidation of immediate memories (Bocchio et al. 2017). When a short-term memory is created, the hippocampus assembles the spread information into one memory. After a long period of time, both cellular and molecular alterations lead to strengthening the connection within the neocortical region, making it possible to access the memory of a specific event in the hippocampus (McKhann et al.

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2011). Alzheimer’s that causes memory loss does not affect long-term memory stored in the hippocampus, for example, a person with Alzheimer’s cannot remember the names of current musicians but can easily recall musicians by name in the early years. In the early years, sleep has been associated with memory consolidation whereby, when a person is asleep, a gene meant for protein formation is increased indicating memory consolidation has taken place thus suggesting hippocampal activity while asleep (Schiff et al. 2017). And a lack of sleep leads to poor short-term memory formation leading to poor memory consolidation.
An individual who engages in leisure activities like cycling, traveling, gardening, golfing, going for a concert, etc. help keep the brain challenged and any work involved with keeping the brain activity are associated with lowering the risk of memory loss. The more activities one engages in, more complex and the number of activities one does, they have a high advantage of keeping their brain young (Deckers et al. 2015). Those who do not take alcoholic drinks have a minimal risk of dementia because of alcohol damages to the brain cells, therefore, leading to early onset of memory loss and are at high risk of getting Alzheimer’s disease. Diet is also a major contributing factor to a healthy brain and reduced onset of memory loss this is because food that is recommended for the heart is also good for the brain (Nourhashémi et al. 2000). One is advised to eat a diversity of vegetables, fruits, and reduce intake of saturated fats since they are associated with memory loss and eventually Alzheimer’s disease. Some of the diseases that affect the heart like blood pressure, obesity, and type 2 diabetes are associated with memory loss by causing blood vessels damage within the brain causing brain cell destruction, therefore, damaging the functioning of the brain, therefore, one should have effective long-term treatment in place. These methods of maintaining a young brain for long have a 95% success rate because the brain is always active and healthy leading to delayed symptoms of memory loss, and might be successful because most people are aiming for longer life and healthy life is their first priority.

References
Bocchio, M., Nabavi, S., & Capogna, M. (2017). Synaptic plasticity, engrams, and network oscillations in amygdala circuits for storage and retrieval of emotional memories. Neuron, 94(4), 731-743.
Deckers, K., van Boxtel, M. P., Schiepers, O. J., de Vugt, M., Muñoz Sánchez, J. L., Anstey, K. J., … & Ritchie, K. (2015). Target risk factors for dementia prevention: a systematic review and Delphi consensus study on the evidence from observational studies. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 30(3), 234-246.
McKhann, G. M., Knopman, D. S., Chertkow, H., Hyman, B. T., Jack Jr, C. R., Kawas, C. H., … & Mohs, R. C. (2011). The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & dementia, 7(3), 263-269.
Schiff, H. C., Johansen, J. P., Hou, M., Bush, D. E., Smith, E. K., Klein, J. E., … & Sears, R. M. (2017). β-Adrenergic receptors regulate the acquisition and consolidation phases of aversive memory formation through distinct, temporally regulated signaling pathways. Neuropsychopharmacology, 42(4), 895.
Nourhashémi, F., Gillette-Guyonnet, S., Andrieu, S., Ghisolfi, A., Ousset, P. J., Grandjean, H., … & Albarède, J. L. (2000). Alzheimer disease: protective factors. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 71(2), 643S-649S.
Warrington, E. K., & Baddeley, A. D. (2017). Amnesia and the distinction between long-and short-term memory 1. In Exploring Working Memory (pp. 18-38). Routledge.

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