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Evolution of beer yeast

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Evolution of Beer Yeast
Abstract
Historically, many researchers have shown that there is a close relationship between mankind and yeast; this has led to the discovery of all fermented drinks. There have been many scientific inventions that have been put in place to improve the technology used in the process of fermentation. The primary purpose of brewing yeast in beer making plays an important in the process. When considering the various outcomes which relate the functions of yeast in the brewery, it has been concluded that these functions are mainly in support of yeast as being the main requirement for fermentation and it has ultimately maintained the quality of the product. The mentioned functions are nutrients supply; it is the primary raw material for the brew house production, utilities, microbiological integrity and the quality assurance practices. The main process involves the value chain of the beer production has remained s the key issue during the fermentation process.
Keywords: beer, yeast, brewing, fermentation, brewers, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Saccharomyces bayanus

Introduction
Beer brewing in its simplest form is one of the representations of the oldest mankind biotechnology. Even if the discovery of this pleasant drink was just an accidental contamination of grain or it was the human curiosity, this has remained as a mystery. Archaeological evidence on the brewing of beer was found in Sumerian tablets about 1800 BC, but the origin may still be dated back about 10,000 BC.

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It was found that these tablets praise more on the Sumerian goddess of brewing. Since those times, mankind discovered that the goddess used a lot of magic in yeast during brewing (Mortimer 2). Therefore, ancient brewers started to domesticate yeast due to its selection as the finest fermentation agent. The relationship between mankind and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is also demonstrated in genetic diversity where various types of wine were produced globally.
Method
The bitter substances are extracted from the acidified samples (beer) mainly made from isooctane. Any material which is suspected to cause any interference is removed by washing the extract with the methanol and concentrated acid. In this method, strains are used in designing the two species of the microarrays.
Multispecies microarray design- The microarrays are used in detecting the DNA copy number in the yeast species, S. cerevisiae, and the S. bayanus. They were both designed with the help of arrayOligoSelector. Another method that was used in data collection was array CC protocol. The technique was used in changing the Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) results with the comparative experiments concerning the DNA genome.
Yeast is the main agent that is used in industrial fermentations. The studies have focused mainly on the evolution of Saccharomyces strains that use adaptive evolution in explaining the phenotypic divergence from the wild ancestors. The recent research has shown that wild genome signatures on domestication have shown various lineages relating to the origin of brewing using yeast. The observations that have been made show that industrial yeast as not been solely shaped but any the genetic drift which causes the bottlenecking and the small isolated populations but it has also resulted to the selection of the niche adaptation (Libeskind et al., 2). For instance, in wine yeast, adaptive gene transfer events and the variations are used in describing the increase in sugar and nitrogen metabolic activity, the process provides a conferring competitive advantage in grape fermentation and also provides a tolerance chemical which is used in making vineyards.
Results
According to the analysis, industrial yeast that is used in making brews come from the ancestral strains. There are main five groups which are separated out genetically; also, these groups are separated by the geographical boundaries as per the industrial purpose (Dunn & Sherlock 5). Most of the brewers use same yeast in making different types of beer. Thus beverages such as the ales are not associated with them. However, they are some distinctions which are associated with beers of specific traits such as the smoky clove.
With the help of the genomic data, researchers have traced the common ancestry of the industrial beer and the wild yeast in the 1500s even before the discovery of the microbes. When using the microbes in making beer, it completely separates it from nature (Libeskind et al., 4). The research team also came covered a good number of the genetic patterns which are related to the process of domestication (Mortimer 5). The wild yeast sexually reproduces even during starvation or stress; this is due to their cushier conditions.
It was also found that the amplification of the genes involved in mobilization of the beer sugars and the selection process against the production of any undesired flavor compounds that are naturally produced in yeast. Wine tastes are genetically resistance to copper which is used in fighting the fungal infections in the vineyard and in connection to that, it can end up in the grapes too.
On the other hand, the geneticists have also traced the history of yeast as being the main ingredient in beer making (Dunn & Sherlock 11). In sequencing the genomes, about 200 modern stains have been revealed on how the humans have transformed the wild yeast into a variety of the stains used in large-scale production of beer. Yeast gives beer booze by fermenting sugar into the alcohol and carbon dioxide, but it also makes many chemicals that are used as part of the flavors such as the bananas and the cloves to a drink. Besides, brewing of yeast differs in their method of production for these metabolites with other traits such as the tolerance to alcohol. The evolutionary tree of yeast stain has revealed distinct families of various users that are used in making wine, bead, and sake. The two distinct groups are strains which are commonly found in Belgium and USA (Mortimer 7).
Interpretation of the results/Discussion and future directions
For long, yeast has been used as the main agent in making beer and other related beverages. Currently, there are various stains which are available in performing a specific function in fermentation. However, the phenotypic nature and the genetic have specific adaptations to the industrial process. In yeast, domestication is the most art which is pronounced in beer stains; this is because they are continuous and live in the industrial niche which has allowed a limited genetic mixture of the wild yeast to be in contact with the natural surroundings. As a result, the beer genome has shown a complex pattern of domestication ad divergence in making both the ale (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and lager (Saccharomyces pastorianus) producing stains which is the ideal model of study and more genetically to the mechanism which underlines the swift in adaptations to the new niches.
Diagrams for further explanation

Another study carried by Emily Clare Baker has provided two main independent originality events which occurred for both S. cerevisiae and S. pastorianus species. For instance, the larger beer making has many similar trajectories for multiple purposes. It is argued that the larger yeast did not just originate once. There was unlikely two marriages of two species, these species were genetically different from one another as human hybrids and the birds. Mitochondria have remained as the powerhouse for production of energy in yeast. The mitochondria genome has also been used to show the originality of yeast as the agent of making beer. In this case, there are metabolism genes which are involved in fermentation and the sugar metabolism; this has been shaped by the domestication process in brewing (Dunn & Sherlock 9).
Conclusion
In conclusion, many of the evolutionary changes have been reduced by the function of the Adri1 protein that activates the alcohol dehydrogenase rather than producing it. Also, the origins of brewing have many lineages to the hybrid yeast that is mainly used in producing lagers and also has provided the land map for the domestication of lager yeasts.

Works Cited
Dunn Barbara & Sherlock Gavin. Reconstruction of the genome origins and evolution of the hybrid lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus. Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5120, USA. 2018.
Libeskind Diego, Hittinger Todd Chris, Carla Goncalves & Jose Sampaio. Microbe domestication and the identification of the wild genetic stock of lager-brewing yeast. University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, and approved July 20, 2011 (received for review April 5, 2011.
Mortimer K. Robert. Evolution and Variation of the Yeast (Saccharomyces) Genome. Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 USA. January 2018.

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