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Human Development

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Human Development / Observations
The Peer Group (Chapter EIGHT)
Chapter 8 addresses the effects of peer pressures from age mates and people around the child. There are classifications of children according to their behaviors and how they have been brought up. The children need the society and the surrounding to learn from hence their peers
Describe the types of children you observe: Popular:( prosocial OR assertive), aggressive-rejected, withdrawn-rejected, neglected, bystander (according to the description in your text, pg.305) How do you know?
The children in this school have mixed characteristics where they share some behaviors and others differ sharply. I have observed the children during their short brake where they exhibit different characteristics like aggressiveness, calm, and others mixed reactions. There are like four categories of students that can be observed from this arrangement. The first class is calm and seems to be withdrawn-rejected. These students are standing at strategic places alone, either doing their thinks like eating or playing little with their toys. The children are not playing and not talking much. Occasionally, some active students would pull them and disturb them, upon which they reply by resulting to defense by slapping, abusing, or shrugging them off.
Another category is of students who are active and popular in their activities. They shout loudest and other children in the field call their names. They seem to have assertive power and are all social, calling names and playing everywhere.

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Another class of students is composed of bystanders who watch others play but can occasionally join others in the field.
Describe what the children are wearing and the language they are using (peer group culture)
They are wearing uniform where the shirts are checked in white and blue, red pullovers, and the skirts and trousers are black. Most of the boys are not wearing pullovers and the girls have beautifully plaited hairs. All girls have white socks and black shoes but some few boys are not wearing socks and this shows some level of negligence on the boys’ part. They are talking in mixed slang where they are calling each other names. While playing football, some are mentioning stars names while others have mediocre names like a tall boy referred to as “gira” meaning giraffe. The use of slang language is enhanced with the peer groups and their language is unique, circulating in their groups of play.
Note any gender differences in play or social interactions. Describe
Yes, there are gender differences. The girls are skipping rope while the boys are hitting the football hard. There are no girls in the boys’ team and the vice versa.
4. Review Kohlberg’s three levels of stages of moral reasoning. Do you observe any evidence of moral development e.g., listen for reasoning of what is “fair” in game playing. If you don’t observe moral reasoning, describe the “Heinz Dilemma” and ask for reason for their answer
There is level of Kohlberg’s three levels of moral reasoning where observable. When time was over, the teacher stood at the door and all students ran to class exhibiting the pre-conventional morality. They were avoiding punishment through showing obedience. Some girls were also seen exchanging their delicacies, as one Melissa was sharing sweets with others to be included in the game, indicating the exchange of favors.
Observational Activity: Adolescent Peer Relationships Interview Questions (Chapter TEN)
The person interviewed is Meagan Kellan, a female grade 7 student who said she is sixteen years of age. She became a good after I approached her and shared my intention to interview her. She is an African American in the school and her ethnicity contributes to a quarter of the school population. She is bold and fearless and she seems to get answers for all questions as her answers were as follows.
Tell me about the people in your group of friends. Which friends do you typically hang out with after school? Which friends do you hang out with on weekends? Which friends do you invite to your parties or to come over to your house?
She observed that she has outgoing friends and she has no enemy in the class. She has friends who like trying new things in their lives. She also observed that among the many friends, there are two who are closer to her than others. Over the weekends, she hangs with the same classmates and another age mate from a neighboring school. She has some close boyfriends who she sometimes shares the weekends from but they are from neighboring school. She occasionally enjoys birthday parties including some of her friends where she said they try new things during the birthday parties.
What makes a friend different from an acquaintance?
She seemed to differentiate a friend from an acquaintance where she observed that acquaintances were good people are known to her and whom she could term as friends, but not close. A friend is closer and can share goodies and information with as opposed to acquaintances who may not know much about her. She gave an example of a new comer whom they have not interacted very much but they know each other’s’ names, classes and areas of residence. She termed her friends as those whom she shares secrets, does assignments, loughs, and goes for party with.
Do you define “friendship” differently now than you did when you were younger?
Not much different since the basics of friendship remain. A true friend should be there for you despite the circumstance and the condition. When she was young, her friends used to sympathize and be happy with her, the same as the current friends. It has changed a little since it has involved expanding the scope of friendship.
How many “true friends” do you have? How does the size of your current friendship group compare with its size when you were younger?
She said she had three true friends, including her boyfriend from across the ridge. She observed that her two close girlfriends share with her their secrets, escapades, and information that other people may not know. She says she has more general friends whom she can share with but there are levels of friendships where some can get the best well-kept secrets and others cannot. She observed that when she was young, she had several friends whom she could break up or reconcile ay time based on the prevailing circumstances. She gave an example of how she could fight with her friend to be called the best girl in class. The size kept changing when she was young, smaller though than now. She says she has more friends now from across the regions and other few who are closer than others. She also observed that she kept walking or staying with one or two of her friends but now she can relate with several.
What happens when you and a friend have a fight? Is that person still your friend? How do you try to resolve the problem that caused the fight?
She has had several quarrels with friends since she became a teen. She opines that she reconciles after the fight, a day or two after the fight. This philosophy of having no enemy keeps her happy and friendly to all her classmates and school mates. She had a fight over the list of noise makers compiled by the class prefect and she was claiming that she was clean. After arguments and the fight, she went to the class prefect and established peace with her. She approaches all people as friends since they can be of help to her any time.
6. Who is the most popular person in your friendship group? What is that person like? Why do you think that person is popular?
The most popular person is Terry, who has a habit of befriending all people. She is popular in that she behaves and acts as a celeb when with her friends. Almost all the grades in the school know her. She is the lead soloist in the school, the best dancer, debater, and a friend to all. She has outgoing characteristics where many people cannot ignore her presence. She also encourages her and their other friend, Sue, when they feel down. She is exceptional and helps all people alike.

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