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Iodine-131 in medicine

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Iodine-131 in medicine.
Iodine-131 is an explosive, radioactive isotope of iodine represented by a symbol (I). It was first revealed through research by scientists Glenn T. Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938. However, this study was conducted in the laboratories of the California University. Iodine-131 is produced when a stable form of iodine called iodine 127 is placed in a nuclear reactor and fission is done using uranium atoms. Iodine 131 emits both gamma rays and beta particles. Iodine 131 emits both gamma rays and beta particles. The average energy delivered from gamma ray is 364 keV. The maximum power produced by beta particles is 600 keV, and the average energy of Beta particles is 190 keV. 2mm in tissue is the highest range of the emitted β particles.
Iodine-131 relation to medicine
Iodine-131 is broad to come up with a nuclear medicine that has been found to treat a cancer condition. Besides, the same nuclear medicine is used in dealing with both liver and kidney problems. Before the administration of Iodine 131, the patient’s room needs special preparation to avoid contamination of I 131. First, anything that the patient touches should be covered with absorbent pads or plastic such as the telephone, floor, and faucets. Second, anybody excretions (urine, stool or vomitus) should be flushed down toilet more than one time. Finally, after patient’s discharge room should be surveyed and contaminated material disposed of properly. When the patient is discharged, the dose measurement must be lower than five mSv (Bekhechi, 35).

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Radioactive iodine (I-131) is commonly used in nuclear medical therapies as a method of treating and an investigative tool. It is commonly employed in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves’ disease.
Iodine-131 can be medicinallyused as a single capsule taken orally. The radioactive iodine is said to produce two types of radiations; beta and gamma radiations. The beta radiation is the agent that deals with the thyroid cells found to react in a strange way and journeys minuscule distances, not particularly departing out of the patient’s body. The gamma radiation can move some distance away from the infected person and if not controlled it can affect other people.
The commonly used therapeutic dose of iodine-131 is the therapeutic regimens; the gamma radiation sometimes fails to act and trace the problem three days after it has been given to a patient. The absorption of iodine into thyroid gland can be lowered by the use of iodine 131 which is an active iodine salt. Thyroid glands’ most active cells can be destroyed by the use of iodine 131. However, it is also used in when administering treatment imaging methodswhen treating pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma.
The beta radiation from I-131 has been found to bring a therapeutic advantage during the treatment process. The central part of the outcome is produced by this radiation; however gamma radiation can still play the same role.
Adverse Effects
The use of radioactive iodine in a right prescription for treatment has been established as the safest and exact method for treating hyperthyroidism. The most collective adverse outcome is hypothyroidism, and this occurs as a result of the extreme final demolition of thyroid cells that make the gland underperform.Some patients who are found to have serious hyperthyroidism cases are said to encounter severe symptoms immediately after receiving the treatment. Besides this takes place due, to the high levels thyroid hormone produced into the blood systemduring the process of necrosis. Some measures can be applied to save patients from painful symptoms of the necrosis process, and this will take place for few months. Being exposed to radioactive iodine has been found to increase the chances of patients to get the thyroid gland cancer. The dangerous poisonousness of iodine 131 is determined by the ‘ingestion dose conversion factor’ that makes it possible to calculate the effective dose being realized from the ingestion process of a known radioelement activity. Ingested Iodine-131 can be destructive since it mainly destroys the thyroid gland, some part of the human body that is found to play an essential function during childhood growth and development. However, due to such reason, radiotoxicity differs significantly year, where kids, children, and adolescents are found to be more sensitive to radioactive iodine when compared to adults.
Although it is commonly used in low quantities for medical inspections, iodine 131 is a simple tracer to be used in humans. A small number of radioactive atoms should be introduced to the blood system for the iodine track to be controlled in the best way possible (Hoofnagle, 316). The particles mix into molecules that are converted into thyroid hormones; this is predominantly amazing, after learning that the iodine gets attached to a given thyroid gland. Gamma ray scintigraphy scans can be used to control the thyroid action and stop the occurrence of any anomalies. In recent past, iodine 131 has been ignored, and another isotope has been used, iodine 132 – a gamma producer that has a half-life around 13.1 hours.
High doses of iodine 131 are found to be a great help during radioactive therapies and are used to treat thyroid cancers. Iodine is infused into the blood flow through the same method, and the small trajectory of the released beta elements assures that the radiation will only affect a comparatively small portion of the human body.
Iodine 131 is terrifying especially when it’s viewed as a fission product, posing a danger to the human body because it can cause short-term pollution when waste is released unexpectedly. When considering the entire from a chemical point of view, Iodine is halogen (with the same structure as chlorine and fluorine) and due to its volatility; it can be quickly transformed into a purple vapor.
As a consequence of being presented to Iodine-131 to patients being dealt with, there is a requirement for some ready level of isolation the accompanying treatment to lessen the danger to close individuals. A Large parcel of the radioactive iodine is pulled back from the body through the procedure of characteristic rot in the initial 3-5 days taking after organization, with aggregate evacuation a few weeks after.
The accompanying practices chop down the impact of the radiation:
• utilize Clean toilets and sinks frequently
• Wash sheets consistently
• Wear shoes and thick socks to increment physical security from others
• Use decontaminant uncommonly fabricated for radioactive iodine evacuation.
It is exhorted that patient ought to shun having sexual practices for one month taking after the organization of therapy. Female patients ought to utilize the proper methodology of contraception for six months to avert conceivable dangers of radiation to a creating fetus. These suggestions are moderate to wipe out the potential danger (Bekhechi, 36). Radioiodine treatment ought not be utilized as a part of a patient who is pregnant. Depending on the phase of pregnancy, I-131 given to the mother may make harm the infant’ s thyroid gland. In such a case, exchange of the
Matter with the patient’ s doctor is recommended. Radioactive iodine will rapidly achieve a youngster when given to a nursing mother, through her bosom milk. Most doctors feel that this strategy ought not to be utilized as a part of ladies who are breastfeeding unless they are willing to stop breastfeeding their newborn. Also, it is suggested that pregnancy is postponed until no less than six to 12 months after I-131 treatment. Ladies who have not yet come to menopause ought to completely talk about the utilization of I-131 with their doctor.
Work cited.
Shapiro, Brahm, et al. “Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine for the locating of suspected pheochromocytoma: experience in 400 cases.” Journal of nuclear medicine: official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine 26.6 (1985): 576-585.
Hoefnagel, C. A., et al. “Radionuclide diagnosis and therapy of neural crest tumors using iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine.” Journal of nuclear medicine: official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine 28.3 (1987): 308-314.
Bekhechi, Djemal, Yves M. Deugnier, and Michel Gosselin.”Randomized controlled trial for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis: intra-arterial iodine-131-iodized oil versus medical support.” J Nucl Med 35.11 (1994): 17821787Roayaie.
http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=radioiodine

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