The Great Importance In The Study Of Chemical Solutions
THE GREAT IMPORTANCE IN THE STUDY OF CHEMICAL SOLUTIONS
Chemical solutions is a relevant issue since we find them everywhere such as in industry, in chemistry, in medicine, in the environment and around us (seawater is a great saline solution), for this reasonNext, details and concepts about the different chemical solutions are explained below. To know what a solution is first to know that it is a substance and a mixture.
A substance is a form of matter that has a defined composition, that is, constant. On the other hand, a mixture is the union of two or more pure substances, and can be divided into two, homogeneous mixtures and heterogeneous mixtures. In the homogeneous the molecules and particles that make up each of the substations by which it is composed cannot be differentiated with the naked eye;On the other hand are the heterogeneous in which the substances that you compare if they can be differences and a clear example of this is when mixing water and wood chips.
Colloids are mixtures that seem solutions and have extremely small particles, can be natural such as plasma or also artificial such as gelatin or starches.On the other hand, crystalloid solutions are those that are composed of water, electrolytes and glucose, they are also able to provide energy and enter all body water compartments.
The solutions are a mixture formed by the solute and the solvent each in different proportions. The concentration of a solution can be expressed in many ways, within the physical we have:
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- Both percent weight/weight (%p/p)
- %solute (p/p) = (grams of solute)/(grams of solution) × 100%
- Both percent weight/volume (%p/v)
- %solute (p/v) = (grams of solute)/(milliliters of solution) × 100%
- Both percent volume/volume (% v/v)
- %solute (v/v) = (milliliters of solute)/(milliliters of solution) × 100%
- Parts per million (PPM): It is a concentration unit used for very diluted solutions.
- ppm of solute = (mass in grams of the solute in the solution)/(total mass in grams of the solution) × 100%
When talking about the water we refer to a vital substance which is made up of two hydrogen molecules and one of oxygen, among many other characteristics we can also say that it has very high boiling and fusion points, we can find it in a solid state,Liquid and gaseous. Oceanos are the place where water contains 95% of the total.
- Density: It is the relationship between the mass and the volume of a body
- Polarity: Water molecules are attracted forming hydrogen bridges.
- Solvent: knowing if a substance is soluble or not in water depends on polarity.
- Thermoregulator: water is heated and cooled more slowly than the earth
- Electricity conductor: If the concentration of water in the water increases, electronegativity also increases.
- CONNECTION AND ADHESION: MOLECULATION ATTRACTION FORCE
- Surface tension: The surface of a liquid is difficult to cross when the force of attraction between substance molecules is greater.
Solutions can be classified according to their physical condition, state of saturation and physical nature of the State.
When talking about ionic solutions, we refer to those that the solute decomposes in its iones when it comes into contact with the solvent.
Acid and base theories:
Arrhenius theory: defined acids as chemical substances which had hydrogen and dissolving them in water resulted in a concentration of protons.
Brönsted-Lowry theory: they defined the acid as the substance that can give one or more protons to another molecule;On the other hand, the bases are substances that can accept one or more protons of another molecule.
Lewis theory: It tells us that acid is a substance that, having an empty orbital it can accept a couple of electrons and the base has an atom with the ability to give a solitary pair of electrons.
Acid and base constant: the product of the acidity constant of an acid and the basic constant of its conjugate base, is equal to the ionic product of water.
Ionic water product: water dissocia ions as a result of its double polarity, despite not an ionic compound.
PH: All living organisms work at a specific pH, this is basically hydrogen potential.
pH = -log [H+]
POH: It is equal to less logarithm of the concentration of hydroxyl ions present in a solution.
pH =- log [OH-]
MORPATING SOLUTIONS: These solutions are fundamental to maintain stability in the concentration of hydrogen ions in certain organisms, adding an acid these do not present any alteration in the pH.
From the concept of what is a substance of vanbocing different doubts and leading more and more more complex concepts and issues, some even contain certain fundamental calculations to understand the issue.
In developing in a deeper way the issue can add that a mixture, being the union of two substances, is also possible that they are separated from certain special processes such as sifted, filtering and chromatography. Colloids are derived from heterogeneous mixtures and these were initially investigated in order to re -apply the blood in an emergency case since their greater intravascular persistence reduces the resuscitation and volume time in the administration of liquids in patients in the patientstraumatized. When talking about crystalloids we know that there are certain replacement solutions that could be said to act as a serum in case of dehydration. It can be stated that both colloids and crystalloids are very helpful within medicine.
Going to the theme of solutions by having the majority of these certain water content, it is importantalmost any solution is coupled.
When we talk about solutions, we are practically referring to a mixture between a solute and a solvent, in addition these are classified into different types such as diluted and a clear example of these is when mixing 1gr of sugar with 1000 gr of water, unlikeThe concentrates that are the opposite of the dilute, and finally when talking about a supersaturated solution they are which, when subjecting them to a sudden temperature camio, it can be more solute than normally accepted.
When wanting to perform a quantitative analysis, what you want to do is determine or know the amount of a certain specific substance that is in a mixture or rather in a solution, some of the most emppleted concentration units are the parts per million (ppm) and the relationships between mass, mass volume, and volume volume. To know what this concentration is necessary to make certain calculations for which already established formulas are needed.
Within an ionic solution the solute being a very polar compound, it dissociates into ions, from here it is where what are the theories of acid-base where Cuetero authors stand out: Arrhenius, Bronsted and Lowry and LowryLewis and from the theories already explained by these authors, other issues come out as they are: neutralization and acid plan or conjugated base.
The oxygen molecule containing the water has a negative load, while the part that contains hydrogen has a positive load, for that reason that the water is a polar molecule, then when talking about ion water product we say that the water could actas an acid and also as a base and what happens is that by contacting two water molecules one of these has the ability to give a proton to the other.
The pH is in charge of showing us the amount of hydrogen ions present in a solution, that is, it determines the level of acidity, the Danish biochemist Sørensen named it as a hydrogen potential and describes it as the negative logarithm of the activity of the hydrogen ions. If we want to establish differences between pH and POH, it can be said that the pH gives the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions while the POH is equal to the negative logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration. On the pH scale the acid values are from 1 to 6 and the basic values range from 8 A14, but when talking about POH it is said that the scale of acid values ranges from 8 to 14 and the basic values scale goes from 1 to 1 to6.
Within what is the agricultural, pharmaceutical and food production industry, damping solutions are wideA strong base The solution is capable of maintaining a stable pH.
The solutions are of great importance in the industry as already mentioned, for the reason to find them in everyday things as well as in food, medicines, domestic cleaning products, water, gasoline, among others. The solutions by having a great influence on everything already mentioned in important also that their types and the different reactions and factors that make up and make the possible solution, characteristics of the solute and solvent are known. A clear example of this is the pharmaceutical industry, since those in charge must have the knowledge of all this according to the necessary need or convenience, so that in the end there is a good product both in physical and chemical state the pharmaceutical must take into account aspectsas solubility, duration, compatibility between solute and solvent, influence on temperature and pH changes.
It is necessary to know about issues such as substances, mixtures, solutions, among others, since they are of great importance in our daily lives. By knowing these issues and specifications we realize the complexity of the subject since some of these sub -themes add certain mathematical calculations that help us understand why different changes and reactions occur. This essay provides timely and important information that makes us realOf great importance, we know that this is also a solution and that it has different properties that make it apt to be called a universal solvent.
We also gave ourselves that many of the existing solutions are of great help within what medicine is, such as colloid and crystalloid solutions, solutions that we can find within the same human being and as an example of this was already mentionedIt is the plasma found in the blood. The objective of this essay, apart from contributing with knowledge, has been to remember issues and aspects already learned such as calculations that help us know the concentration of some compound, solute or solvent within the solution.
When we realize that the learning of these issues is important in the industry gives us guidelines so that we realthat it can also be concluded that it is necessary to know all this to know the correct way to administer medicines and alowdowed mixtures with different mineral salts to production animals in a correct way.
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